Salmond standing opposed to Winfield opines that there is no “law of tort” (meaning no specific principle of establishing tortious liability) but merely “law of torts”. What he meant to say is that the law of torts consists of a number of specific rules prohibiting certain well-defined harmful acts prohibited by Common Law. This means that there is a certain list of commissions and omissions of acts which under specific situations are actionable in a court of law. Hence according to Salmond, people are only allowed to file a case against that specific act or omission which comes within one of these recognized categories. Like law recognizes specific acts like theft, forgery, dacoity, murder, rape and etc.
Thus, as far as primary rules are concerned, Hart argues that there is a need for certainty, so that these rules can be applied by general public without any official guidance. There are a number of defenders of rule of law who have emphasized the need for the same kind of safety. He also discusses clarity as to which norms are to be declared as law. Hart had earlier argued that rule of recognition serves a very important purpose in peoples’ understanding of which rules can be secretively enforced by the society. However, in the Postscipt of his book, the Concept of Law, he says that the need for certainty is not a requisite condition.
• It provides guidance for HSE children and Family Services and other professionals on how to deal with and report any form of abuse in the best interest of the child. Children’s first also provide protocol for An Garda Siochana and they have a HSE Liaison. • Supervision, Support and additional guidance for HSE child protection and welfare work. • Special Considerations - Especially vulnerable children. • Peer Abuse - This refers to school bullying where people threaten, tease, taunt and torment their peers.
Malaysia was a muslim majority state but for national interest Indonesia had taken up “crash Malaysia” policy. But the enmity ended to face the Chinese domination .It has been very clear that Indonesia’s external relations are guided by secular motives. Recently as member of ASEAN Indonesia is playing its regional role thus transcending the religious beliefs. Moreover international terrorism and continuous attack in Indonesia made the Indonesian leaders much more pragmatic and secular in foreign policy choices. Indonesia started its foreign relations with a bit anti western approach but from the Suharto era it started drifting from the anti Western path.
Weather this is due to a problem of English or those concepts of the terms do not exist in Western culture, this should not be a problem for understanding what Confucius says because most books of the Western philosophy are translated too. Moreover, this should not be a barrier to make people to think Eastern thinkers are not persuasive and to differentiate by East and West. For example, a concept of virtue is exclusive in this book, which should be a familiar concept for people who already studied Western philosophy. However, the virtue that is explained by Confucius is, in fact, unique. For instance, Confucius (2015 ,4) says that in order to be virtuous, people need to concern the other before themselves.
Indonesia Haze Event In the recent couple of months, haze has been the main topic of news in Indonesia. The haze in Indonesia has caused serious problem to people, especially they who live in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Recently the victims includes some children who died and hundreds of thousand who get infection. According to the data from the Health Ministry, the number of ISPA patients from June to October in Riau Islands stood at 45,668; in Jambi the figure was 69,734; South Sumatra, 83,276; West Kalimantan, 43,477; South Kalimantan, 29,104; and 29,104 in South Kalimantan (“Hundreds of thousands fall victim to haze illnesses | The Jakarta Post,” n.d.). The haze in Indonesia happens not only this year, but it has been
Air pollution is the fifth largest killer in India, killing around 1.5 million people every year due to chronic respiratory diseases and asthma. Despite this, people in New Delhi (the capital of India) found joy in bursting firecrackers on the New Year’s Eve boosting up the air pollution levels and further worsening the air quality. The Supreme Court of India had banned bursting firecrackers till November 1, before the festival of Diwali when most of the celebration is done by bursting firecrackers, to avoid further smogginess in the city. However, a lot of people found it convenient to still burst firecrackers ignoring both the ban and the hazardous effects it is having on the air around them. On the 1st of January, the Central Pollution Control Board classified the air quality as ‘very poor’ in Delhi with the Air Quality Index 400(the worst AQI in the CPCB Index).
States are sovereign entities, Sovereignty is the monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a territory. Sovereign entities are not supposed to meddle in the internal affairs of other sovereign entities. The leaders shouldn’t get involved in other state issues and leaders are not allowed to go for example, tells people in another state how they should live and what they should do. Sovereign states are supposed to control their own domestic affairs, but the states violate this all the time. Strong actors can violate sovereignty and get away with it.
The first weakness is the disputants can block the use of the dispute settlement mechanism as it can only be applied if the party to the dispute is agreed. Second, the other weakness is TAC procedure allows countries other than ASEAN member states to get involved in the dispute settlement process. Its means that the non-member states can able to watch and speak during the meetings. Lastly, in TAC, there is no explicit provision for arbitration or adjudication by a court or tribunal as it only involve good offices, mediation, inquiry and conciliation as the non-legal modes of dispute settlement. So, we can say that TAC mechanism is not a good mechanism that likely to be used to settle disputes between ASEAN member states as the process is too public.
11.5 billion dollars are spent every year in cleaning up litter in Australia, this money could be better spent on other things like roads, schools etc. Land pollution has come to be one of the serious concerns that we always have to battle. Litter is harmful to people, animals and most of all the natural environment. Paper takes 6 months to decompose, cigarette butts take 2-5 years, banana peels take 3 months, plastic bags take 10-30 years, gum takes 20-25 years and aluminium cans take 200-400 years to decompose. 9 billion tons of litter end up in the ocean every year.