GINGIVAL BLEEDING AS PRESENTING SIGN OF ADVANCED HIV/AIDS – A CASE REPORT ABSTRACT: Introduction: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), remains as a significant health care problem since its discovery in 1981. Oral manifestations are considered as the earliest and important indicators of HIV infection. Most of the oral manifestations of HIV are due to immunosuppression and related opportunistic infections. Case presentation: A 43 year old female patient reported to our department with a chief complaint of bleeding gums for 4 days. Based on the history and clinical examination, necessary investigations has been done and she was diagnosed as clinical stage IV HIV disease with pancytopenia, disseminated tuberculosis and tuberculoma brain.
Street-based adolescents in Ukraine are at significant risk of contracting HIV due to involvement in injecting drug use and unprotected sex (Busza et al., 2011). A Closer Walk illustrates that AIDS was spreading more rapidly in Ukraine as high as 15 folds in three years (Bilheimer, 2003). Adolescents have contracted AIDS by injecting heroin in their bloodstream as part of brotherhood tradition. In the movie, Ruslan represents an example of how AIDS infiltrates the society, as he will inject heroin and share the same needle with Katrina his partner (Bilheimer, 2003). Ruslan indicated that 40% of his generation (aged 15–19 years) tend to share the same needle as part of the culture.
1. With the virus that doesn’t match, a person is still more protected than a person without the vaccine, as stated in a CNN report in December of 2014 on the effectiveness of mutated viruses. 2. Secondly, a yearly vaccine is important because our immune response to the virus weakens over time [Transition: Everyone is at risk for the flu, especially children] II. How the flu affects children A.
Pediatric pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in children. Although , there are cures for this infection , if not detected early , it can pose to be life threatening. Most cases of pediatric pneumonia are found in developing countries like Bangladesh , Nigeria and the Sub Saharan Region. According to WHO , as of 2013 , the causality rate caused by pneumonia is at 2 million, amongst children under the age of five. This dramatically rising number proves that there is a need to understand the etiology of this infection , and determine what factors can be assessed to help in early detection of pneumonia.
Ideally, the pathology of AIDS involves several key states namely seroconversion illness, asymptomatic infection, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, symptomatic infection, and eventually AIDS (Mandal, 2012). We Were Here is a documentary on AIDs and how it affect the gay community in 1970s. The documentary, gives five different people experience of the epidemic in San Francisco. The interviews were emtional and inspiring on how AIDs destory the gay community. In the early years of AIDS (that is, the 1980s), a number of healthcare disparities could be observed in the population.
(). Human trafficking in China is a profitable international business that is spreading out owing to various factors, including the high-pressure implementation of the One-Child Policy, a faulty legal system, and the blind bond to long stagnant cultural traditions that degrade women.In China, Communist Party directive overlook the legislative and judicial process. The primacy of government policy results in the ineffectualness of laws that theoretically defend and protect female and women in China. (Li,1996)8 In 1992, the Law on the Protection of Women 's Rights and Interests ("LPWRI")(Tiefenbrun,2008) was passed, which was the first basic law to protect women 's rights and interests in China.7" The LPWRI forbid kidnapping, trafficking, and buying women, though it fails to prescribe any special penalties for these offenses. (Tiefenbrun,2008) The LPWRI also fails to stipulate a definition of discrimination against women.
Some examples are that for the past several years we have heard that polio vaccine lead lymphoma and caused the AIDS epidemic, and the MMR vaccine lead to Crohn’s disease and autism. These theories, however have not bothered themselves with facts, that might be fair in the time of chiropractic’s infancy, but now, in the 20th century it is not acceptable. The lack of true information about vaccination is a struggle to the vaccination policy. A research by Kennedy et al. shows that health professionals consider that girls are empowered to make decisions about the HPV vaccine for themselves, some of them decide not to take the vaccine for the lack of information.
This privilege is given only upon the citizen’s fulfillment of her duties to the state. According to officials, once a couple has been granted the right to have a child, they then have a duty to make use of contraceptives to prevent further pregnancies. Since the Chinese have long had a preference for male babies, the one-child rule has caused many problems for female infants. Abortion, out-of-country adoptions, and even abandonment are known to occur to females. Statistically, this extreme form of family planning has resulted in the ratio of 115 males for every 100 female babies born.
In spite of the difficult and enormous challenge, the recent success provide a way forward towards the development of vaccine against HIV (2). Brief History of HIV vaccine development: This section provides summary of some of the key events in the history of development and research of HIV vaccines (2, 15). Sr. No Year Achievements 1. 1984 Discovery of HIV-Ι 2. 1986 Approval of first HIV-Ι vaccine for clinical trials 3.
The study finds that black people may have poorer mental health as a result of two mechanisms: Firstly; chronic exposure to racial discrimination leads to more experiences of daily discrimination and secondly it results in an accumulation of daily negative events across various domains of life, from family, friends, health and finances. As stated by an online research, “A person’s whole world can change from experiencing discrimination and they can become depressed, anxious and mentally unwell. People who experienced the most racism also recorded the most severe psychological distress scores and more than 70% worried at least a few times a month that their family and friends would be victims of racism.” (VicHealth, 2009). In, addition,