Abstract: Cadmium is very toxic metal for living organisms. It has adverse effects on living organisms mostly is disturb the activities for cells, tissues, and metabolic process of living organisms. Its major source is food such as plant based food, meat, cereals, fish, shellfish etc. It has toxic effects on brain, bone, digestive system, cardiovascular system and DNA. It cause severe acute and chronic toxicity.
Mercury, which is a liquid metal, is used in artisanal and small-scale gold mining to extract gold from rock and sediment. Unfortunately, mercury is toxic that causes issues on miners’ health, not to mention the health of the planet. For every gram of gold produced, artisanal gold miners release about 2 grams of mercury into the environment. When combined, the world’s 10 to 15 million artisanal gold miners release about 1,000 tons of mercury into the environment every year which is equivalent to 35% of man-made mercury pollution. Artisanal gold mining is among the leading causes of global mercury pollution, ahead of coal-fired power plants.
The chemical actually has absolutely no benefit to the human body. The National Wildlife Federation states that mercury can “adversely alter the neurological and reproductive systems of humans and wildlife.” (Tolmé 2012) Mercury has the capability of damaging the nervous system including “the nervous system including psychotic reactions, hallucinations, suicidal tendencies and delirium” (Edward 2012) An extended exposure of mercury can cause muscular spasm and can also lead to death. Once mercury enters the body, it is stored in “kidneys, blood, spleen, brain, liver, bones and fatty tissues.” (Edward 2012) The metal also has a big impact on pregnant or nursing women. It can contaminate breast milk and can increase the percentage of neural tube defects by the utero being
Kumar et al., reported that plants belongs to Brassicaceae family are commonly used accumulators and hyperaccumulator plants. But most of the plants belongs to this family have slow growth rate and low biomass production. Among all the plant Brassica juncea is one of the best plants which are used in phytoremediation with higher growth rate (Kumar et al., 1995; Saxena et al., 1999). Therefore PGPR assisted phytoremediation by using hyperaccumulator plants Brassica juncea is an emergent technology and need special attention to explore this area. Our aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cadmium tolerant PGPR and check their effects on growth and uptake metal of Brassica juncea in cadmium contaminated soil.
110Cd, 12.39%; 111Cd, 12.75%; 112Cd, 24.07%; 113Cd, 12.26%; 114Cd, 28.86%; and116Cd, 7.58%. Cadmium is highly toxic and should therefore be handled with care. Cadmium is ductile, malleable and a soft metal. It is a good conductor of electricity and resistant to corrosion, making it a good anode for metals such as iron and steel. 3.0 Bioavailability and Chemical Extraction of
Heavy metals can be found in different products through natural and anthropogenic processes, and contamination can originate from various sources (Gall, Boyd, & Rajakuna, 2015). Contamination in agriculture could be from the soil, water and irrigation methods used. In hot dry season, the wastewater used to irrigate the crops in Zambian farms in East Africa were found to contain above acceptable levels of chromium and copper, and during the dry season, copper, chromium, nickel and cobalt in likewise considerably high amounts were identified. It was inferred that the large amounts of heavy metal in the soil were probably due to the seepage of water from the dams nearby the sample area and natural copper content of the soils because of the close
Contamination with trace metals has become a great concern around the world, especially in developing countries including India (Alagarsamy, 2006). With the rapid industrialization and economic development in coastal region, these metals are to be introduced to aquatic environment (Feng et al., 2004; Romano et al., 2004). Contaminated marine sediments have been recognized as a very important deposit for persistent toxic substances (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds) released into the aquatic environment from various sources. Identification of the natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals is an important task in marine pollution research (Esen et al., 2010). Previous studies have shown that human exposure to a high concentration
Recent evidence suggests that increase or decrease of certain trace metals may be related with risks and development of chronic diseases such as cancer . On this subject, many investigations have been carried out in which have focused on metal-induced carcinogenicity and oxidative stress as the most
Water pollution caused by heavy metals is a global problem. The discharge of toxic metals into the ecosystem may severely affect the biotic as well as abiotic components of the environment. These metals are generally derived from different industrial activities such as mining, metal finishing, battery manufacturing, electroplating, etc. and are responsible for contaminating the receiving water bodies even when present in trace amounts. This is due to their carcinogenic and toxic properties (ATSDR, 2013).
Among these, industries are creating a wide spread of pollution to the environment, especially the increased levels of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, cobalt and mercury in to the soil and aquatic system; these heavy metals have highly hazardous and toxic nature which can affect the human health and living things. Generally, living systems near the industries would consume such heavy metal toxicity in