All the titles of these chapters provide an implication of the argument made by Gordon. In the first chapter titled, 'The Hamiltonian Miracle, ' ' Gordon explains how Hamilton had to pay off the costs emanating from the revolutionary war through creation of a federal bank which created the first national deficit by assuming the debts from various states. The second chapter, ' 'Andrew Jackson Redeems the Debt, ' ' reviews the events after the 1812 War specifically how the seventh President of the United States used surpluses that had been generated through high tariffs ' 'to rid the Federal Government of debt entirely ' ' and contribute largely to the first depression. The third chapter, ' 'Armageddon and the National Debt, ' ' the books shows the Civil War imposition on America’s first Federal income tax which questioned how the tax burden could have been distributed. In ' 'The Twilight of the Old Consensus, ' ' Gordon provides a trace of the fiscal policy after the end of World War 1 and how it led to the shock experienced during the Great depression.
Journal Articles Badian, E. “Alexander the Great, 1948-67.” The Classical World 65, 2 (October 1971): 37-56. Database on-line. Available from JSTOR: Journal Storage. This article explores Badian’s notions of “Alexander the Dreamer.” He proposes that Alexander’s childhood upbringing made him become a dreamer wanting immorality in the form of being a god. Alexander had many goals he wanted to achieve, one being to conquer the ancient world.
Verschuer was a leading scientist known for his work with twin research. Six years later, Mengele went to work at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics. This facility was interestingly funded by the Rockefeller Foundation located in the United States, “which, according to historian Paul Weindling, ‘intervened from 1922 to save German medical sciences’” (Rubenfeld 2). Mengele was promoted to the rank of Schutzstaffel (SS), or Nazi Police, captain in April 1943, and soon after, he was transferred to Auschwitz in late May 1943 where he continued his twin studies. The euthanasia program was the fulcrum for the Holocaust.
Postcolonial writing has concerned itself specifically with the recuperation of lost history. Cultural Memory studies is that burgeoning field of study which provides the important tools for understanding and ultimately deconstructing the configurations of nationalist and imperialist power embedded in the representation of the past which takes cognisance of the visceral experiences and the memories of resistances of the oppressed through generations (Gandhi 92). ‘Culture’ is a veritable social construct that is usually understood in and through the contents of its traditions—its modes of action, forms of language, aspirations, interpersonal relations, images, ideas and ideals. ‘Memory’ is the capacity to remember, to create and re-create our past. The substance of our very being is memory, our way of living is retaining reminders; articulating memory is our raison d’etre.
Loller defines it as a process which is constrained, on one hand, by the influence of various factors including textual and extra textual ones, on the other hand due to the cultural or historical circumstances which were present at the time of making and reception of various texts and their relations (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p.
This event, common to countries all over the world, depicts the various superstitious rituals that are performed on such occasions (Buckley, 2006). Despite the different alternatives that are available to present day couples, marriage rates continue to escalate (Currie, 1993, Campbell & Wright, 2010), and so too are the different superstitious rituals which form part of this tradition. Superstition may be defined as “a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation” (Merriam-Webster online dictionary). Gilovich, 1991, supports this definition by theorizing that the human mind is invariably involved with irrational thoughts, one of them being superstitious thoughts and beliefs. In keeping with this premise, one event lends credence to these customs and beliefs is a wedding
Cornell (2004) pointed out that autonomy and self –determination is the frequent goal of ethnic mobilizations (p. 245). In a cultural perspective, Guibernau (2006) argues that ethnic group demand self-rule in order to ‘to foster its distinct identity’ (p. 72-73). It may seem that such conflicts are common in multiethnic society where the existence of cleavages makes the formation of homogenous society very difficult. Furthermore, the establishment of a ‘national identity’ inevitably favor a certain faction of society that might cause uproar from other minority groups. We can therefore argue that “what matters is whether there is the perception of discrimination” (Cornell, 2004, p.
A number of theories are drawn from various disciplines (i.e. media and cultural studies, psychology, anthropology, etc) about the way how media represents reality. Media representation is the main focus of theories around portrayals (Hall 1997) and cultural studies (Grsiprund, 2002), and the central point of representation theory remains the dilemma whether the media simply reflects or actually constructs realities? On both sides, there are notable scholars defending each theory. Kellner (1995) argues that media reproduces social struggles, which in return, has an impact on the production of identities and audience understanding of the world.
1.1: Background of study Tookey et al. (2001), explains that a procurement management environment which includes elements of law, finance and accounting, risk management and politics; and where practitioners from each of these professions at times claim this function as their province. This claim- staking is recognized explicitly in the various management frameworks that can be found worldwide for procurement governance and is indicative of the lack of agreement, including within reform agendas, about what government procurement entails or of its strategic significance. This lack of agreement about the scope and nature of public procurement, in the view of Boateng (2008), is very familiar and varied within organizations and even between
Defining culture has been a huge challenge for researchers and writers. Culture has been defined in different ways, but none of them have been completely accurate. (Soares, Farhangmehr and Sho-ham, 2007: p. 277). Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov (2010: p. 6) define culture as “a collective phenomenon”. They state that culture is something that is learned, not inherent.