Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur (1976) originally proposed Dependency Theory. It is derived from the Uses and Gratification Theory by Blumler and Katz (1974) wherein it is a limited effects theory. In other words, it grants individuals much control over how they employ media in their lives. Media scholars believed on the power of media but some scholars argued about the incompatibility of limited-effects and powerful-effects model that is why Dependency theory takes a step in the direction of viewing how both models may give an account to explain media effects. Just like uses and gratifications theory, this approach rejects the casual assumptions of the early reinforcement hypothesis- the idea that media simply reinforce previously
Also, tying the theory to agenda setting, if the individual is so dependent on the media for information, the media will have much more influence and power over the individual making it easy for the media to agenda set. Therefore, the individual may easily fall victim to media Agenda Setting. The theory is based on some assumptions and statements which are: A proposal that there's an integral relationship among audiences, media and the larger social system. Media Dependency theory predicts that an individual depends on media information to meet certain needs and achieve certain goals, same as uses-and-gratifications theory. However, you do not depend on all media
In reflecting what candidates are saying during a campaign, the mass media may well determine the important issues – that is, the media may set the “agenda” of the campaign (McCombs, 2003). Basic/core assumptions The two basic assumptions on which the agenda setting theory is based on are: 1. the press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it; 2. media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. Agenda setting occurs through a cognitive process known as “accessibility,” which implies that the more frequently and prominently the news media covers an issue, the more that issue becomes accessible in the audience’s memory (Iyengar & Kinder, 1987). Types There are three basic types of agenda setting according to Everett Rogers and J.W. Dearing (1988): 1. public Public agenda setting focuses on the audience’s agenda 2. media media agenda setting focuses on the influence of the mass media on the audience.
When the government wants to achieve its ideal of certain policy, it might use messages that give positive light to this policy. The purpose of these messages is to gain acceptance from the people, because their lack of acceptance will undermine the legitimacy of the government. Once the propaganda achieves its goal, however, the people will view the policy favorably. They will be less likely to revolt against the government. Thus, the government can maintain its legitimacy and domination while pursuing policy that it favors.
Radio, television, film, and the other products of media culture provide materials out of which we forge our very identities; our sense of selfhood; our notion of what it means to be male or female; our sense of class, of ethnicity and race, of nationality, of sexuality; and of "us" and "them." Media images help shape our view of the world and our deepest values: what we consider good or bad, positive or negative, moral or evil. Media stories provide the symbols, myths, and resources through which we constitute a common culture and through the appropriation of which we insert ourselves into this culture. Media spectacles demonstrate who has power and who is powerless, who is allowed to exercise force and violence, and who is not. They dramatize and legitimate the power of the forces that be and show the powerless that they must stay in their places or be oppressed.
Media censorship also limits people from obtaining important informations that needs to be spread among the people of the world, e.g. latest technological trends and awareness of infectuous diseases6. In the end, media censorship is actually just a matter of what material to show and what not to, by considering the possible effects toward its audience. It acts as a preventive method to filter us from unwanted influences that can go through materials we see everyday. Lack of censoring or even too much of it can cause seriuous harm.
In this essay, a general introduction of social change and media influence will be discussed in the first section. The second section will be an exploration of the extent or degree of influence media has on the audience that relates to the issue of media ownership such as media moguls like Rupert Murdoch. The economic effect in political area, such as propaganda will be analysed in the third part of the essay. Next, the effect of advertising that can impact values and its problems will be examined.
Mass media play a very significant and determinant role in the contemporary world, by broadcasting and communicating information in fast pace and at the same time entertaining vast audiences. Mass media have a tremendous impact on the structure and history of our society due to the fact that they can influence and shape public opinion, determine political agendas, affect socialization and create a relationship between people and government. They consist of television, press, internet, radio and books and they became one of the main sources of popular culture in the modern capitalist society. Media’s role, however, is not only to offer news and entertainment but also to transfer and cultivate a variety of social stereotypes, beliefs and values of the society in order to reproduce the order and the already existing formation of social life. In this paper, I shall examine the notion, the types and some important theories on stereotypes as well as their dependable relation with media.
Other hand it is also the emphasises the dependence other forces in society like politics and money may considered hare as an example. From this second point of view, the forms of mass media are an outcome of historical change a reflection and consequence of political liberalisation and industrialisation and a response to demands for servicing from other social institutions. Mass Society Theory Mass society theory emphasises the inter-dependence of institutions that exercise power and thus the integration of the media into the sources of social power and authority. Content in the media is likely to serve the interest of political and economic power holders and although the media cannot be expected to offer a critical or alternative definition of the world, their tendency will be to assist in the accommodation of the dependent public to their