Bone Classification

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Human adult skeleton consists of 206 bones, composed of inorganic salts embedded in a framework of collagen fibres. Bones can be classified according to their shape as either long, short, flat or irregular. Long bones are the weight-bearing bones of the body. Their structure provide maximal strength while maintaining minimal weight. They are found in the extremities and include the humerus, radius and ulnar of the arm. Short bones include the tarsal and carpal bones while flat bones include the frontal and parietal bones. Irregular bones consist of the bones of spine and certain bones of skull. Bone can also be classified according to its structure; either as cortical or cancellous bones. Adult cortical bone consists of networks of interconnecting…show more content…
(Marsh, Slongo, Agel, Broderick, Creevey, DeCoster, Prokuski, Sirkin, Ziran, Henley, & Audige, 1996). Many criteria have been added to cater for specific type of bone fracture. For example, Gustilo-Anderson Classification is used to classify open fractures (Gustilo, Anderson, 1976) while Müller AO Classification is used to classify fractures based on the fracture’s anatomical position (Müller, Nazarian, Koch, 1987). In addition, Ebnezar (2010) further classified bone fracture according to its severity (Figures 3.1A and B), extent of fracture line, and patterns of fracture (Figures 3.2A to E). These revised classifications allow standardization and consistency in clinical practices and researches. Apart from that, classifying the fractures systemically will help clinicians to understand details about fractures and aid them in determining the management and prognosis for the…show more content…
After experiencing major traumatic event, the John Doe will seek treatment immediately. They may present with complaint of pain at affected site, swelling, limb deformity and loss of motor and sensory function at the affected limb (Ebnezar, 2010). The prime diagnostic investigation for bone fracture is radiology imaging (Solomon, Warwick, 2014). Fracture may be made worse by a sequel of complications. Acute complications occur as a direct consequence from the trauma sustained and include damage to vascular structures, nerves, or soft tissue. Compartment syndrome is an acute complication whereby increasing amount of pressure within the muscle group disrupts the circulation and the function of the tissue (Howe, Eiff, & Grayzel, 2015). Comparatively, delayed complications may occur after treatment has been initiated or in response to treatment. Specific fracture may predispose to severe bleeding and potentially fatal. For example, fracture at neck of femur will injure the femoral artery and causes the patient to have massive bleeding (Tornetta, Kain, Creevy, 2007). For nerve injury, certain nerve may injured due to their close proximity to the fractured bone or as an effect of casting. Other delayed complications of fracture includes infection at fracture’s site, non-union, and post-traumatic bone pain, of which patient may need to be prescribed with long course of pain relievers. (Howe et.

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