The skeletal system provides the basic supporting structure of the body. It is made of the joined frame of bones called the skeleton. The human skeleton in a whole is made up of 206 bones in total. Bone in the human body is a dry, dense tissue. Bone is made of a calcium-phosphorus mineral, organic matter and also water.
Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx. The appendicular part of the skeletal system supports the appendages of vertebrates. The appendicular skeleton includes the arms, hands legs, the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. Of the 206 bones in the human body 126 of these make up the appendicular skeleton. Due to the appendicular bones being found in the hands, arms and legs they allow more movement than possible with the axial skeleton found at the core.
In lateral canal stenosis as there is involvement of the nerve it results in severe radiculopathy, with muscle weakness, pain and immobility. This results from a series of changes in the components of the central and lateral canal such as ligamentum flavum inflammation, bony spurs, epidural fat deposition and facetal hypertrophy. (1) Management of spinal stenosis includes conservative or surgical treatment. Conservative approach comprises of rest, analgesics, anti inflammatory medications, physical exercises, and weight loss. Surgery is done in patients who have severe pain, disability, neuropathy or malignancy.
The protective cartilage on the ends of bones breaks down, causing pain, swelling and problems moving the joint. Bony growths can develop, and the area can become inflamed. The major symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Some people can have swelling, tenderness and grating or crackling sound when moving (NHS,n.d). These are the symptoms Mohamed reported to the doctor.
( 4 points) When bone heals it undergoes four repair phases. First, hematoma forms blood clotting in the fracture. Second, a fibrocartilaginous (soft) callus forms. This is when the fibroblasts lay down collagen matrix to form cartilage. Third, hard callus forms when osteoblasts produce trabeculae and the callus is replaced by this bone.
Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
Fractures to the radial head and neck, olecranon and distal humeral condyles/epicondyles have been approximated to occur between 5% and 15% of all elbow dislocations (Middleton, 2012). Fractures like these change the type of dislocation from simple to complex. Therefore a complex dislocation may involve both ligament and bone injuries. A severe dislocation can be catastrophic; there is a high chance that the many nerves and blood vessels that travel in and around the elbow joint may be injured, therefore there is a risk of losing the arm(O’Driscoll, 2009). Dislocation of the elbow is uncommon; usually occurring when someone falls onto an extended hand.
This type injury is a serious form of brain injury that requires immediate medical attention. Because there is an open wound, open head injury victims may be exposed to infection and contamination. It can occur in car crashes, sports accidents, work accidents, or gunshot wounds that create a skull fracture. Objects like a screwdriver can pierce the skull and cause brain injury. If the object leaves in a different location than where it entered, it’s known as a perforating open head
Actually, it is the most frequent cause of bleeding abnormalities. Petechia ,purpura and mucosal bleeding are among its typical clinical findings. Moreover, severe and life threatening gastrointestinal or intracranial bleeding may also ensue. To rule out other coagulation defects, laboratory tests must show a prolonged bleeding time in the presence of normal coagulation parameters and thrombocytopenia . There are several mechanisms of thrombocytopenia.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing.
Nonetheless, our group observed specific locations in the skull that over time, changed among species. The following methodology will include how to observe or examine the different locations that were relevant to the study. By looking for the widest part in the back of the skull the location of the maximum skull breath can be identified. The degree of postorbital constriction can be recognized by observing the space behind the brow/supraorbital ridge. The zygomatic flare can be examined by evaluating how wide is the zygomatic bone.
It is also noted that where two bones meet is called a joint. There are many types of joints that allow for the body to move in different ways, notable ones: hinge, ball and socket, pivot and some in the skull. The materials used was a virtual skeleton, a cursor, a box, bones, and brains.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).