Essay On Human Spine

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BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing. They separate the vertebrae from each other so they also protect them from the wear and tear. There is an empty space in the spine to permit the nerve roots and spinal cord to pass inside. There are 33 vertebrae and 23 intervertebral disks in normal adult spine. The vertebrae are numbered and divided into several regions; which correspond to the curves of the spinal column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx as shown in figure (2.1). The cervical spine has 7 vertebrae and constructs the neck. The thoracic spine contains 12 vertebrae which the ribs attach to, and the lumbar spine has 5 bones which make the lower back. The sacrum consists of 5 bones which are fused or stuck…show more content…
In medical techniques, the orientation of certain planes must be specified to depict the interests section. Three basic planes identify the position within the body. Figure (2.3) gives a diagram of planes through the human body. The sagittal (or median) plane is parallel to the body axis and it divides the body or an organ into right and left sides. The coronal (or frontal) plane divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. The transverse (or axial) plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower)

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