The Spine: Composed of 33 vertebrae, the spine consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral and 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae. The width of the vertebral bodies generally increases craniocaudally, except at T1-T3. The normal curve of spine includes: 1. Cervical lordosis (20-400) 2. Thoracic kyphosis (20-400), 3.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
I intend to explore one disease of the musculoskeletal system and find out what it is like to live with said disease and found out how much people really know about it. What is anatomy and physiology? Anatomy: The study of the different parts of the body and the relationships between them. Physiology: How each of these parts functions. Composition of bone Bones are made up of many different cells and minerals.
And they locate between the metatarsal. These muscles abduct digit two to four and flex the metatarsophalangeal joints. Only lateral plantar nerve is innervated within these muscles. Skin Skin is the outer part of our body. It covers our body and protects from the outer environment.
The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally. Distally, the bones are connected by a wrist capsule, radio-ulnar stabilizing ligaments (dorsal and volar) and a fibrocartilage articular disk (triangular fibrocartilage compex, TFCC) (). There is an interosseus membrane
Muscle is a long bundle of flesh which is attached to the bones at both ends by tendons. Epimysium known as tough tissue which protect outer layer of muscle. Inside the epimysium are fascicles or bundles of muscle fiber cells. The fascicles are surround by a layer of perimysium tissue which act as connective tissue. The individual muscle fiber is covered with endomysium
The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal. Second branch is the sinuvertebral nerve is a small branch arising from the ventral ramus traverses medially over the posterior aspect of the disc, vertebral body and posterior longitudinal ligament and supplies these structures. Third branch, the dorsal ramus courses dorsally and pierces the intertransverse ligament near the pars interarticularis and divides into 3 branches which supply the structures dorsal to the neural canal. The lateral and intermediate branches supply the posterior musculature and skin while the medial branch divides into 3 branches and supplies the facet joints at and the adjacent
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament. It inserts in the linea alba, by an aponeurosis that fuses with the weakly developed dorsal leaf of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique to form the dorsal wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis.
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).
One such study by Faden et al, allowed the researchers to classify Erlenmeyer’s flask deformity into three groups. The first category describes the typical, common shape of the bone associated with EFD where a normal di-metaphyseal is not present. It is named EFD-T and it appears as a relatively normal trabecular (spongy) bone. This type of EFD is seen in frontometaphyseal dysplasia, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, diaphyseal dysplasia-Engelmann type, metaphyseal dysplasia-Pyle type, Melnick–Needles osteodysplasty, and otopalatodigital syndrome type I. The second category describes the atypical type of EFD (EFD-A) as the bone lacks the normal modeling of the di-metaphyseal and an unusual appearance of the trabecular bone.
The zygomatic flare can be examined by evaluating how wide is the zygomatic bone. The cranium size can be analyzed by comparing the size of the overall cranium with the size of the overall face. The cranium shape can be determined by analyzing the height and width of the overall skull. The degree of prognathism can be examined by looking at the profile of the skull and determined how much the face projects outward. By looking at the back of the skull and analyzing the morphology of the occipital and nuchal region the shape of occipital and nuchal region can be determined.
3-CT It is radiological exam that uses x-ray tube to produce cross sectional images of the body by rotating around it and detecting the radiation coming out of it. This modality able to provide internal soft tissue details so it asses to reveal if any lymph node or organ are enlarged. CT are helpful in looking for any lymph in abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck(2). and hepatosplenomegaly, or filling defects in the liver and spleen. CT is used for initial staging, assessing response to therapy , and for follow-up.