Topic: Assess nurse’s knowledge, attitude and practices regarding phlebitis in medical and surgical unit of services hospital Lahore. Introduction: Peripheral intravenous cannula is a common practice which is done almost in 90% of hospital cases on their admission. So the patients have chance to develop the infection at the cannula site or in blood stream and causes the serious complications. One of most common complication of intravenous cannula is phlebitis. (Coomarasamy, Wint, & Saleh, 2014) Phlebitis is an inflammation of vein generally its inner lining tunica intima, characterized by redness, pain and swelling of affected are with numerous causes such as Mechanical (Cannula rubbing and irritating the vein), Chemical (medicine
About one in fifteen women develop breast cancer (Tarrier, Living with Breast Cancer and Mastectomy). Breast cancer and Mastectomy produce two great sources of psychological stress, one to do with the individual existence and survival, and the other to do with the femininity and self-image (Tarrier, Living with Breast Cancer and Mastectomy). The most common reaction to Mastectomy is anxiety and depression (Tarrier, Living with Breast Cancer and Mastectomy). The most common reason for Mastectomy is breast cancer (A.D.A.M Encyclopedia) Women who have a very high risk of developing breast cancer may choose to have a preventive (or prophylactic) mastectomy to reduce the risk of breast cancer (A.D.A.M
Breast cancer in Nigeria is characterized by late presentation, younger age at diagnosis, large tumours and multiple nodal involvements. The pattern of presentation differs from that in the western world where most patients are post-menopausal and present with small sized early tumors and less aggressive disease. Figure5: Mastectomy in a 48 years old Nigerian patient with Breast cancer The use of conservative surgery as part of multidisciplinary management of breast cancer is increasing throughout the world. However complete surgical removal of the breast with its local lymphatic drainage remains the preferred surgical treatment in Nigeria and most low income countries (LICs) where breast conserving surgery is infrequently practiced. The reason for this disparity include; late stage of presentation, large size of tumors at diagnosis, lack of access to treatment, poor affordability and the aggressive nature of the disease commonly seen among Nigerian women and in other low income
Yet, when Asians immigrate to the Unites States, within a couple of generations, the breast cancer rate among their descendants approaches the American rate.1” Although there many environmental factors that relate to breast cancer, it is hard to point out which ones are directly related and how much they affect developing breast cancer. Aging is a huge risk factor for breast cancer, in that, the older women get, the more their body changes and the risk for developing breast cancer increases. “Seventy-five percent of breast cancers occur in women older than age 50.1” Women live longer now than they did in the past, which allows time for the breast cancer to not only develop but be detected. Technology has
Say Goodbye To Sagging Breasts With Breast Lift Surgery! Or, Choose Breast Lift Surgery To Get Rid Of Sagging Breasts Summary: Breast lift surgery is no doubt one of the most amazing cosmetic surgeries that can make your breasts look simply amazing! Breast lift surgery has the power to enhance the size, shape and appearance of you bosom. You can choose this surgery to get rid of sagging breasts. Main Content: There are numerous reasons why females choose to go for a surgery to lift their breasts as well as to give them a decent shape and size.
Birthing options Most women prefer hospital delivery, and most health care practitioners recommend it because unexpected maternal and fetal complications may occur during labor and delivery or postpartum, even in women without risk factors. About 30% of hospital deliveries involve an obstetric complication (eg, laceration, postpartum hemorrhage). Other complications include abruptio placentae, abnormal fetal heart rate pattern, shoulder dystocia, need for emergency cesarean delivery, and neonatal depression or abnormality. Nonetheless, many women want a more homelike environment for delivery; in response, some hospitals provide birthing facilities with fewer formalities and rigid regulations but with emergency equipment and personnel available. Birthing centers may be freestanding or located in hospitals; care at either site is similar or identical.
Nausea and vomiting are common postoperative disorders, but can and should be avoided because of the complications and discomfort, especially after a few specific types of surgery. Some consequences of vomiting are tachycardia, hypertension, discontinuation of oral feeding, risk of aspiration, dehydration, increased intracranial
Administering mistakes can involve wrong patient, wrong dose, wrong drug, wrong time/omitted, wrong route, and commonly involves infusion pumps. The last area of transcribing process, wrong dose, wrong route, wrong client, wrong time, and wrong drug errors can occur I recommend observing a number of effective substitutes that can considerably diminish the error rates in medication dispensing. I have discovered four studies of the effects of these approaches. In the first, the rate of dispensing errors in a, US hospital fell from 0.19 to 0.07% by the use of a bar code system, in a cost, benefit analysis the breakeven point for return on investment was during the first quarter of the fourth year. (Rolland P.,
Most of society today believes that birth control is only used for the “stopping of the egg” in the ovary. There is much more then just stopping the pregnancy. Birth control has many positive side effects which include the following: stops heavy periods, helps prevent painful acne, and can actually cut your chances of ovarian cancer in half. Most girls start to menstruate between age 10 and 15 years, the average age being 12. Most teenagers experience bad period cramps and have the feeling of “knives going through the abdomen.” Being on birth control can help the lining of the uterus thin out, meaning less painful periods.
Urinary incontinence, the loss of bladder control, can also be called enuresis is a problem with many different age groups. This is caused by sympathetic dysfunction. Sympathetic dysfunction affects many systems of the body such as the the cardiovascular, reproductive, and even urinary. Enuresis is a medical term used more towards children meaning involuntary urination, referred to bedwetting most of the time (Silverthorn, 2013). The International Continence Society defines incontinence as “a condition in which involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrated (Viktrup, 1993).” Incontinence is also very common once a woman becomes pregnant and throughout postpartum.