Various techniques have been developed to facilitate this process such as image resizing, masking, cropping, attenuation, and conversion to grayscale. A straightforward general purpose method is to apply a filter such as peer group filter (Celebi et al., 2005), mean filter (Silveira & Marques, 2008), media filter (Celebi et al., 2007), Gaussian filter (Maglogiannis et al., 2006), or anisotropic diffusion filters. These filters are however not guaranteed to remove all artefacts. An alternative is to use a specialized method for each approach. Many methods have been suggested, but none deal with all the artefacts involved (Abbas et al., 2011) (Celebi et al., 2009) (Rashid et al.,
clipping path is a one kind of shape which is used in Photoshop to differentiate the background and images. clipping path basically used to hide or remove the background or used to get a new shape of images . Clipping methods is created in graphics programs then exported with a picture as associate degree embedded path. In a surrounding software like Adobe Photoshop the clipping path is made with choice tools that draw rectangles, ellipses, or free-form shapes called a the choice Marquee. clipping path could be a common phase of graphics designing where large firm unit use fixed object without background.
Photography is an art form that can be used in many different ways. Some use photography in order to capture memorable moments, and others could use it to evoke inspiration and creativity in our peers. Many do not see the correlation between math and photography, but they are greatly related in things such as panoramas, conformal mapping, fractions, amount of light, hyperfocal distance, and other creativity based things. One way math is related to photography is panoramas. Panoramas are a series of photos from every direction from one point in a plane, so when it is all put together it creates one large photo from a single perspective.
Moving object segmentation is the important task in video surveillance and conferencing systems. Background subtraction methods for a relatively static background are widely exploited for moving object segmentation and detection in image sequences. However there are several issues like noises, shadows, dynamic background and illumination problem. This paper presents a new approach that combines wavelet approach with the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for segmenting the moving objects. Our study shows improvements on the above mentioned problems and highly tolerable to changes in indoor and outdoor lighting conditions.
By using this way, people cannot stealing what could be copyright and can avoid them from manipulated the photo. The most popular software that are use for editing is Adobe Photoshop. Adobe has created a photo authentication tool to the software. There are two tools that are use by Adobe which is Clone Tool Detector and Truth Tool Detector that can help stopping digital image forgery. According to the Math (2010), Prof. Hany Farid has lately drawn attention of researcher worldwide by reporting digital image forgery problem.
Today, photo manipulation is popular and trendy because people nowadays are pretty much involved in using technology. Photo Manipulation is "transforming or altering a photograph" (Wikipedia) with the use of different methods and techniques for the editor to achieve its desired result with the use of technology. This is considered as skilful artwork. Photo manipulation and photo editing are two different thing. Photo editing is a "small changes that do not change the image" (Callow) while photo manipulation is changing almost everything on the image.
The term photogrammetry is old as term photography. It is derived from three different Greek words; photo means photographs, gram mean drawn and metry mean measurement. The purpose of photogrammetric measurement is to reconstruct three dimensional of an object either in digital (coordinates and derive geometric elements) or in graphical form
They have used smearing methods, horizontal projections, half transform. They first blur the image to enhance text line areas and then segment the images surface along several white paths in the blurred image. After they assign CCs of the original image to the appropriate line segment. They notice that most of them occurred when they had great variations in letter size. They could try and define locally the blurring window depending on a more local estimation of the average letter height.