Recently, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue and federal lawmakers have started considering funding for preschool . Early childhood education often centers on learning through play. Research and philosophy of Jean Piaget highlights that play meets the physical, intellectual, language, emotional and social needs (PILES) of children. Children's natural inquisitiveness and imagination naturally suggest learning when unfettered. Thus, children learn more proficiently and gain more knowledge through activities like dramatic play, art, and social games .
‘Constructivist’ theory of learning is considered to be the main developmental theories of learning currently working in the area of special educational needs. Constructivism is ‘child-centred development’. It is an active and building process, where learners use what they already know to learn new things, and infer new knowledge based on their interaction with new experiences outside themselves, using information and ideas from within themselves, or already obtained. In other words, knowledge is considered to be socially constructed because it is obtained in partnership between new experiences and knowledge already acquired. Constructivism is useful for understanding the way in which a child may progress educationally, which is important
The literature review is based on the perspective on different perspective, researchers with the subject of play-based in the early childhood education settings. The definition and importance of play will be covered in the literature review. Hereafter the literature review the types of different play, which enhance the learning of social and communication skills in early childhood education settings. The literature review also explains the disadvantages and advantages of the play-based in the classroom practiced by teachers. Finally the chapter explore in the ways of teachers supporting play-based learning in their classroom situation.
The observation of children, centred round careful viewing and listening, is a crucial characteristic of effective early childhood pedagogy. Nonetheless, research suggests that early years’ practitioners struggle to observe children satisfactorily and find a great difficulty in planning provisions built upon their observations. Thus, it is imperative that as prospective early childhood educators, we should understand the importance and value that such methodology holds. There should be a continuity between that which is observed in the classroom setting and what is presented to the students to facilitate their learning. Such observation equips educators with the skills necessary for effective teaching, learning and assessment.
Adulthood is also of psychological and personal development by which time it is assumed that individuals have established their identity and are well on their way to being independent, responsible, self-disciplined and purposeful. Weitzman (1972) states that: “through books, children learn about what boys and girls say and feel. They learn about what is wrong and they learn what is expected of children their age. In addition, books provide children with role models and images of what they can and should become when they grow
Critique of “Guiding Children’s Friendship Development” “Guiding Children’s Friendship Development” by Kathleen Gallagher is an informative article that gives readers insights on how to help students through social and friendship developments. Gallagher shows educators ways to aid students in learning social skills through ideas and real teacher examples. A good portion of her article surrounds the idea of a social development pyramid, one in which helps teacher provide appropriate guidance to young students learning about relationships. “Social-emotional development in the primary years” In this section, Gallagher begins to dive into the concept of friendships in young children through primary grades. As children prepare to attend preschool, they obtain a number of different skills in which that help them create friendships in school.
Infant and toddler education is a subset of early childhood education. Initial childhood education enables children to enter and thrive in the elementary school classroom, decreasing the risk of mental illness, and helping the development of independent adults (Benin, 2010). In other words, a child at this early level of education is taught to be open to interpretations and critical thinking. She/he is exposed to all subjects, beginning with the environment in which he/she lives and in time, encompasses ethics, science, and belief systems. At this early stage, this formative type of education is capable of the following: closing the cognitive gap between lower and higher-income children before formal schooling begins, increasing subsequent high school graduation rates, improving performance on regulated tests, and decreasing both repetition of classroom material and the amount of children arranged in learning support education (Schweinhart et al.,
Social exchanges such as interactive activities, conflicts and communications were encouraged (Gandini, 1993). Projects were child-initiated, thorough and ongoing investigations which aimed at addressing a topic (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). Art materials included the creative use of space and materials (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). Acting as learning companions, teachers evaluate students’ developmental pace and levels through various forms of records like anecdotal records, photographs and children’s art work (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003). Under the approach, teachers, parents and child were collaborative components in learning (Mitchell and Carroll, 2003).
It is said that social learning is the result of transforming oneself in response to the expectation of others. Behaviors and attitudes develop in response to the encouragement from the people around in the society. Socialists also say that the theory studies carefully the experience of people in their childhood and also it is believed that the identity that people acquire is formed by the behavior and attitudes of others that are around
Neither of the two types have advantages and disadvantages . Working alone is not make you bad. In fact, working alone has some advantages. You can do your work anytime and anywhere . In other words, it is flexible.