Mobilization happens when there is an interaction between immigrants and native, the immigrants will learn the native language. Nationalism happens when there is a necessity to have a legal language of a country. Education and culture happen if those language and culture spread to other places, so person who want to learn about it have to understand the language first. Religion is usually written in a language, such as Arabic in Islam or Latin in Christian. In the same vein with Troike (2003, p. 9 cited in Linawati, 2015, p. 16), there are some reasons of someone becomes
1.1.There is an odd balance between the culture of the Western Europe and the culture of the country outside the West. There is a kind of signature by the west of the decline of other nations through commencing, and globalisation and several attempts have been made by scholars, especially those from the west to argue for globalisation as an inevitable drift. Winseck and Pike (2009), examined the Indices that made prominent the global media system around 1860. Ugo (2009) looks at the issues, cultural issues: globalisation of the press, the new media culture and development of nascent media multiple channels by the youth in
First came in 1993 in Foreign Affairs. As an expansion of 1993 Clash of civilizations?, Huntington published a book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order in 1996. The 1993 article hypothesize that the fundamental source of conflict in the new world (post cold war era) will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic, instead conflict of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations (Huntington 22). Huntington argues that it is far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their political or economic systems or in terms of their economic development but rather in terms of their culture and civilization (Huntington 24). He further elaborates that the increasing interaction between seven or eight civilizations and their basic differences will be the reasons of clash.
„Knowing a language means knowing its word structures and meanings.”( Cambridge University Press, American English: History, Structure, and Usage, Julie S. Amberg and Deborah J. Vause, Word systems) Futhermore, the study of linguistic semantics means to focus on the relations between words,phases, signs and symbols that is used for understanding human expression though language. I think that for understanding a foregn language you need to know different vocabularies and it can be compared with universal uman
We have seen how the lexico-grammatical form of language is internally organised in general functional regions (i.e. the ideational, interpersonal and textual metafunctions). We looked at the ideational or conceptual meaning through the vocabulary and grammar of the texts. Just like the metafunctions of linguistic texts, visual texts also have metafunctional characteristics. By applying Halliday’s concept of metafunctions to other modes beside the linguistic, Kress and Van Luewen (1996) came up with a grammar for visual design where they assume that the visual mode draws upon the same semantic system as does language, and that everything said about the semiotic code of language could be said about the semiotic code of pictures.
All these concepts are looked upon as different ways of trying to make visible the textual category of translator. All these factors, explain why things have turned out the way they did. The answer is because the translator adhered to certain norms, ideologies and certain conceptions on interpretation of the source text. Then the question of why did he adhere to those particular norms comes into existence. In a nut shell, descriptive translational studies takes into its fold translator’s conception of the source text as it emerges from the target text.
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
I. Introduction: Translation is transferring a text or any kind of information from one language into another. It crosses space to allow people share their thoughts. Translation studies improved until it reaches other types of translation; such as the audiovisual translation (AVT). Chiaro defines it as “one of several overlapping umbrella terms that include ‘media translation’, ‘multimedia translation’, ‘multimodal translation’ and ‘screen translation’” (2010, p.141).
Even though all of the elements of interest must interact, it is possible to differentiate individual elements that compose a meaningful language. Troike states phonology as an element of a language used in the acquisition of a second language. Phonology is that element of a language that shows the different sounds of a speech thereby creating different meanings. It defines the possible sequences of vowels and consonants in what is referred to as a syllable structure. Further, phonology deals with intonation patterns that include
Translation has become an indispensible tool for the teachers of comparative literature as it is the gateway to enter the arena of the texts of the ‘other’. However, with this shift of the discipline of translation studies from a purely linguistics-oriented approach to a more culture-oriented approach, the scholars have increasingly begun to trace the exercise of ideology in translation that had been hitherto a largely neglected area in linguistics-oriented approaches. The teachers and researchers of comparative literature should use the tool of translation with sensitivity to the ideology it embodies. Since one of major achievements of comparative studies has been enlarging the canvass of cross-cultural communication and understanding, ideology cannot but be a major area of evaluation. Though ideology permeates almost all institutions of society, one of the pertinent areas where the translator should be sensitive to the ideological impact is gender.