The opposing viewers believe New Criticism, a technique that looks at how literary techniques while analyzing a story, is the better was to approach a storyline. While both techniques do try to find a deeper meaning of a book are valid and acceptable, looking at the history behind a book gives details and context that New Criticism can not. This view of the of Heart of Darkness in relation to the mind of Conrad allows us to see the true purpose of this expansively progressive book, giving readers a look into imperialism at its core. Not only does Conrad’s own history affect his writing, but it is also a major building block and base of the creation of Heart of Darkness. Conrad and his expression through his characters bring the view that Imperialism and the civilized world have their own heart of darkness into the
The usage of techniques in the book convey a whole new story experience for readers, something that a movie can’t do. Both the book and movie offer excellent descriptions, but the movie falls short when compared to how detailed the book is. For instance, there is a lengthy and detailed description
Throughout history, hundreds of philosophers have all come up with their own method of thinking that has had a great impact on philosophy, eastern and western, and the way that we continue to view the world today. One of these many philosophers went by the name of David Hume. David Hume is of Scottish decent and lived during the eighteenth century. He had a huge impact on the western way of thinking during the eighteenth century. His way of thinking was immensely influential on the subject of utilitarianism, the philosophy of science and sensationalism.
Hence, when Vijay Mishra comments that ‘we may indeed claim that all Indian literary, filmic and theatrical texts endlessly rewrite The Mahabharata’ (1991:195), he is using ‘rewriting’ less as a marker of counter-discourse than of intertextuality: all other narratives in India have as context and influence The Mahabharata but the master text itself is not particularly targeted for strategic reform. A specific example of this kind of rewriting occurs in Stella Kon’s The Bridge (1980) which is self-consciously shaped by another influential Indian epic, The Ramayana. Kon’s Singaporean drama, with its additional intertextual references to Peter Weiss’s Marat/ Sade, uses The Ramayana as a play-within-a-play for the patients of a Help Service Centre who are trying to overcome drug dependence. Kon maintains the traditional (pre-contact) structures of the epic, dramatising it as part
For a long period of time, there has not been any crime that is as severe as plagiarism in either the literary field or the academic realm. Ostensibly, modern people have made considerable effort in avoiding plagiarism, punishing plagiarists, protecting intellectual rights and maintaining textual authorship. Alastair Pennycook, as a linguist who specializes in English language, showed that plagiarism would put writers’ authorship at stake. Based on the factors Pennycook had referred to in his essay Borrowing Others’ Words: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism, in this essay I will argue that, notwithstanding the earnest ethical endeavor people have made, factors such as postmodern actualities of the repetitions of knowledge, wide use of electronic media, and power relations in society have been leading people to disclaim their authorship Before commencing further analyses, it is critical to apprehend the meaning of authorship and understand its deep layer of meaning by comparing it to ownership. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the notion of “authorship” is explained as “the fact of being the author of a piece of writing; the fact of being written by a particular person; literary origin”, which is the most basic but superficial definition of authorship.
Language and culture are mutually inclusive entities; one can exist concurrently in the presence of another. Therefore the translation of local culture through the foreign language perpetuates local colors. The Pakistani post-colonial writers used the English language as a mean of explicating local ethos, which resulted into pidiginization as well. Every language is rule governed and culturally specific and eventually restricts the writers to explicate cross cultural conceptions. However, these constraints are observed in the Post- colonial literature, for instance; Ahmad Ali in his novel, Twilight in Delhi illustrates: zanan Khana, Mardan Khana, rakhail, Hakeem’ and so on which highlights sociolinguistic limitations of English.
“Persian Poetry” by R. W. Emerson and the chapter “Reading” from Walden by H. D. Thoreau are works that elaborate on this subject and substantiate the idea of transnationality of the literary canon. Although both authors do not explicitly use the term “transnational”, they argue that literature has or rather should have no boundaries. In this regard, they believe that such classics as Plato, Virgil, Burns, Shakespeare and others are not only mere sources of knowledge, but also affluent wellsprings of manifold cultural experience, which by enriching people’s minds influences their mindsets, thus broadening their horizons and leading to liberation of people’s
As briefly discussed in the introduction, the issue of the nation and nationalism should not be confined to hard politics. Indeed, recent scholarships have turned from the statist perspective to regional and even individual experience of the nation and nationalism, among other issues. More importantly, the cultural aspect of the individuals has drawn spotlight as well. Although political historians, such as Benedict Anderson, have pointed out the significance of cultural factors in the formation of the nation and the spread of nationalism, the lived experience of that culture by individuals rarely received attention among political scientists. Yet fields like history, anthropology, and literature, in recent decades, have begun to draw attention
Native American literature is comes the under the umbrella term of “American literature” which sprouted during the period of Native American Renaissance. It commences with the oral tradition of the amble of Indigenous cultures of American and it reaches the evolutionary transformation in the aspect of writing. The writing of the Native American writers deal with their rich cultural heritage, ethnicity, identity, transracial issue, multi (bi)-cultural conflicts, history, religion, mythology, folklore and experiences in the form of novels, poems, short stories etc. It helps them to voice out their victimization and sufferings by the non-natives, especially when non-natives impose their values and principles on them to abide either directly
Because F. Scott Fitzgerald and Norman Mailer are authors who contributed to the shape of their national identity and consciousness, their philosophic roots and American literary, as well as the American cultural currents of their times have been comprehensively explored in their literary art. A point of accord among scholars is that Fitzgerald and Mailer’s contributions to American culture reach far beyond their roles as American literary artists—they are not only considered voluble social critics of twentieth-century America, but eloquent interpreters of their American cultural milieu. Literary works such as The Great Gatsby and An American Dream stand as evidences to these authors’ commitment with and apt understanding of their cultural
They were regional rather than global in scope, they didn’t have devastating and transforming impact on their conquered people, they were not exposed to new diseases which could lead to a catastrophic population collapse . asian empires had created an empire ,similar to those of western Europe in terms of conquest,settlement,exploitation , and feeling of superiority the process of of building these empires (Asian empires) did not transform the imperial homeland as fundamentally as did the wealth of conquered states in western europe or in Russia. These expanding Asian empires reflected energies of their respective civilizations in the early modern era, and they gave rise to profoundly cross cultural encounters. China as Europe had ambitions to expand it’s territories to build it’s new empire. China took an 80 year military conquest (1680-1760) that brought these huge regions under chinese control.unlike europen’s and Russian empires it was largely security concerns, rather than economic need that pushed china to take over other territories.