The nature of children 's language development and stages of language development is very important. A child 's language skills will go hand in hand with the development of physical, mental, intellectual, and social. Therefore the child 's language development is characterized by a continuum that moves from the sounds or simple utterance to the more complex speech. According to Tarigan (1998) there are two basic rules that allow a child can acquire language skills, that are potential biological factors which are owned by the child, as well as social support
Chomsky proposes that children should be exposed to the complexities of grammar at an early age to enable them to procure linguistic competence (Shaffer, 2011). Aspect of Lifespan Development (Module Focus)- Cognitive and Language Development • Universal Grammar (UG) • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) • Surface Structure • Deep Structure (Schaffer, 2011) Process (Expansion of Theory Components)- While Chomsky, suggests that some grammar concepts are innate, he advocates that children be allowed to use this knowledge to further develop through experience. Chomsky’s UG theory is that all grammar, regardless of language, shares certain attributes such as past, present and future tenses and noun and verb use. By engaging in conversation with adults, the children can understand patterns and guidelines for correct grammar use. This concept is Chomsky’s LAD, “whereby children set about constructing the grammar of their native language from the speech they hear” (Shaffer, 2011).
Some have argued that language acquisition device. Some have argued that language acquisition device provides children with a knowledge of linguistic universals, such as the existence of word order and word classes; others, that it provides only general procedures for discovering how language is to be learned. But all of its supporters are agreed that some such notion is needed in order to explain the remarkable speed with which children learn to speak, and the considerable similarity in the way grammatical patterns are acquired across different children and languages. Adult speech, it is felt, cannot of itself provide a means of enabling children to work out the regularities of language for themselves, because it is too complex and disorganized. However, it has proved difficult to formulate the detailed properties oflanguage acquisition device in an uncontroversial manner, in the light of the changes in generative linguistic theory that have taken place in recent years; and meanwhile, alternative accounts of the acquisition process have evolved.
First and second language acquisition arises from natural and not academic techniques; in other words, children acquire them by means of exposure and interaction in environments where the target languages are spoken. Children are conscious that language is used to communicate; however, they are unable to explain its grammatical rules. For this reason, the acquisition of a language is considered a subconscious process. Throughout this part of the study, different perspectives concerning the acquisition of both linguistic systems will be presented. First, language acquisition is understood as the process in which the mother tongue is acquired.
According to the research and discussion about the animal communication versus human language, there are several aspects of Hockett’s Design Features that animals lack, and thus makes human language remarkable. Additionally, prevarication, reflexiveness, and learnability are the main characteristics that are unique to human language because they are not found in other animal species. However, I believe that reflexiveness is the most outstanding feature that makes human language different from animal communication because it is the key that supports humans to achieve other language features. Firstly, a reflexive feature has emerged a study of language, in other word, linguistics, and hence, lead us to a critical question ‘What is the most
Consequently, there is evidence to suggest that innate predisposition in each human infant takes a fundamental role in the process of acquiring language. We may consider this as a particular aptitude for learning a language with which each newborn baby is endowed. It is important to note that by itself, however, this mental and physical characteristic that a child has from birth is not adequate for language acquisition. Numerous researchers have made one point clear; the process of language acquisition has some fundamental prerequisites in the first place. In this sense, as Braine states that a child needs interaction with other language-users to bring the general language capacity into contact with a particular language such as English during the first two or three years of development.It stands to reason that a child who does not hear or is not allowed to use language; namely
Shirahata (2006) cited Selinker (1972) as naming that linguistic system that L2 learners use and is different from their L1 and a target language as “Interlanguage”. He claimed that L2 learners have different linguistic systems of Interlanguage respectively and furthermore it has dynamic features and even the same L2 learners get to have different systems depending on their developmental stage and learning process. Interestingly, it was found from an analysis of interlanguage that some consistent errors exist in a linguistic system of language use of L2 learners and that L2 learners acquire L2 through a similar process even if their L1 is different, although it is possible to be somewhat different. As we mentioned in section 2.3, it was reported that L2 acquisition has a predictable acquisition order in morphology and syntax in common with L1 acquisition. In this way, from 1970s to 1980s, it had been gradually clear that L2 learners have possibility to acquire L2, using systematically some language systems on the basis of input of L2 that they
How Child Learn Language through Child Directed Speech (CDS) Acquiring the language requires fundamental elements in order to use language for communication in at least daily life effectively. In other words, vocabulary is the prerequisite component before using language in more complicated level. Krashen (1989) stated that comprehensible input can facilitate learners acquire L2. Since comprehensible input is important to learn language initially, baby learning the first language is assumed that they needs input from parents or from caregiver in order to be familiar with the L1 and can gradually use the language later. Investigating how parents or caregiver provide input in form of utterances is worth to study because it can explain
First, it is a tool that requires the test-taker to perform in a given domain. Secondly, it is used to measures general language ability as well as specific competencies. Thirdly, it results in either a letter grade or a numerical score, sometimes accompanied with examiner’s feedback. Brown states if a test does not specify explicit measurement criteria then it cannot be defined as a test. In the field of linguistics, tests measure language learners’ ability to perform language-related tasks: reading, writing, listening or speaking.
At first a child begins to produce their first words which are related to their environment such as papa, mama, nana, thatha, pets, toys, bye etc. The words are extended to the related environment such as from bye – ba – ball, bull, bib etc. Later it extends to multiple word utterances where a child acquire the language with the combination of more than one word such as come in, sit down etc. Finally they learn grammatical morphemes in a fixed and sequential order. A child will know how to use tenses, articles, plurals, possessive forms and so on.