On some occasions, diarrhea is accompanied by some abdominal discomfort or pain. Severe abdominal pain is not typical and, if present, may be a sign of more severe illness. If diarrhea is massive and results in dehydration, the condition becomes an emergency, and may potentially be lethal. Patients who experience dehydration are usually thirsty, and have dry throats. In older patients, the skin appears to be loose, and they may become very sleepy, confused or develop changes in behavior.
INTRODUCTION Acute pulmonary oedema is a rare, but life-threatening problem which may cause significant morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. It may occur due to pathologies such as pre-eclampsia, sepsis, amniotic fluid embolism, fluid-overload or beta-adrenergic tocolytic drugs during the antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum periods. Moreover, pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases may worsen due to the superimposed effects of physiological changes related to pregnancy (1). Management of these patients is a challenge for the anaesthesiologists, because there are no controlled studies or guidelines pointing out the best type of anaesthetic technique in these patients (2). CASE A 38 years old, pregnant patient with a history of rheumatic
The loose blood clots can block the artery in the heart and become pulmonary embolism (PE). A pulmonary embolism is dangerous conditions that can lead to fatal because of blood supplies from the heart to the other parts of the body are failed. DISEASE CLASSIFICATION Deep vein thrombosis can be classified to three categories which is idiopathic, acute and chronic. Idiopathic deep vein thrombosis can characterized with usual condition acquired risk factors, such as obesity, trauma, cancer, or surgery. Acute deep vein thrombosis can be seen by pain and swelling.
A pneumothorax can be caused by physical trauma to the chest wall or as a complication of a healthcare intervention which is referred to as traumatic pneumothorax. In a minority of cases the amount of air in the chest increases markedly when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a tension pneumothorax which leads to steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure. Unless reversed by effective treatment, it can result in death. Diagnosis of a pneumothorax by physical examination alone can be difficult. Integrated diagnostic modalities can be used for the better detection such as chest X-ray,
If there is a complete block, then this can cause the area where the blood vessel supplies the blood to undergo necrosis which is also known as heart attack. SYMPTOMS Some of the symptoms exhibited by a person undergoing heart attack can vary from one person to another as this depends if this is a severe case of MI or a mild one. - Chest pain
Introduction: Intussusception is a common gastrointestinal emergency in the pediatric population. This illness is a conversion in which a portion of the intestine telescopes into another adjacent distal segment of the intestine and causes bowel and ileocolic obstruction. Intussusception is considered a frequent cause of abdominal pain in pediatric patients. It is well described in infants, with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.4 % nonetheless it is less well-established in neonates.1, 2 In fewer than 10% of the patients, a surgical lead point can be determined as a plausible etiology. Cecal duplication as a lead-point of neonatal intussusception is extremely rare.
Oral motor dysfunction is common in people with CP. The face and tongue are affected and the person can have a hard time swallowing and speech can be affected due to breathing problems and tongue and vocal chord control which results in difficulty communicating; these are considered secondary conditions of cerebral palsy. Other associative conditions such as intellectual impairment, epileptic seizures, hearing impairment, or vision impairment do not result from the same brain injury that caused cerebral palsy, but do occur frequently in those with the condition. It is estimated that approximately 50% of children with CP have some form of learning difficulties, however it must be noted also that some children with CP are very intelligent. Sometimes children with CP have difficulty processing information about shapes, speed and space – this is often referred to as a visual or spatial perception difficulty.
In the stages of endometriosis you can experience different types of effects and stages. The stages are referred to as Stage I to Stage IV. The reproductive system can be compromised and cause infertility. Anatomically the disruption of pelvic structures, multiple production and activation of peritoneal macrophages cause the inflammation of the lower abdominal cavity. It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst.
Symptomatic patients presenting with a palpable volar swelling should be examined for variations in the palmaris longus. In an asymptomatic subject a hypertrophied muscle will obstruct and result in hazy interpretation of radiological assessment of this region. Difficulties in endoscopic procedure and electro myographic studies may also result from such a reversal
Hypertension occurs in ∼50% of renal transplant and almost all cardiac transplant patients. Hyperuricemia may lead to worsening of gout, increased P-glycoprotein activity, and hypercholesterolemia. Nephrotoxicity occurs in the majority of patients and is the major reason for cessation or modification of therapy. Combined use of calcineurin inhibitors and glucocorticoids is particularly diabetogenic. Especially at risk are obese patients, African-American or Hispanic transplant recipients, or those with a family history of type II diabetes or
Paints often develop difficulty breathing, cough, and wheezing. The pancreas is also frequently damaged in cystic fibrosis, which leads to recurrent pancreatitis, abdominal pain, diabetes, and malabsorption of nutrients. Patients that do not receive treatment typically progress and develop end-stage lung and pancreatic disease that may require organ transplantation. Due to the importance of this condition,
Introduction to Atrial Fibrillation The most prevalent clinical arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which can be defined as irregular heart beats caused by uncoordinated activation of the atria. Atria are the two upper chambers of the heart. During atrial fibrillation, the cardiac muscles that make up the walls of these atrial chambers, receive disorganized activation signals. This causes them to fibrillate, which means rapid and irregular contractions. This results in inefficient pumping of blood from the atria into the ventricles, the lower two chambers.
AFib treatment options vary depending upon the severity of the disease and the underlying reasons or diseases that caused it to occur. Atrial fibrillation, also known as AFib, must be treated on a case-by-case basis in order to reduce the risk of other health problems or complications. Understanding AFib AFib occurs when the uppermost chambers of the heart beat irregualry and uncoordinated with the lower two chambers. AFib often causes a fast heartbeat that is irregular, chest pain, difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, weakness and dizziness. AFib episodes may happen sporadically or become chronic and occur regularly.
Heart murmurs are created by an abnormal turbulent flow of blood. The sound is provided by your heart is from the flow of blood through your atria chambers to your ventricles. This can be caused by fever, anemia, high blood pressure, or overproduction of the thyroid hormone. Another possibility could be the function of the valve. Mitral valve prolapse or mitral valve stenosis are reasons for the functioning of a bad valve.