Essay On Internal Combustion Engine

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2.1. Internal Combustion Engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which combustion of the fuels takes place inside a chamber in the engine, usually known as the combustion chamber. The reaction is an exothermic reaction that releases gases at a high temperature and pressure, thus producing work. The engine to be used in this research project is a diesel engine, which is a form of the internal combustion engine. All internal combustion engines depend on combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with oxygen from the air. The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make-up of the fuel and oxidisers, as well as by the
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Source: https://www.ngk.de/en/technology-in-detail/lambda-sensors/basic-exhaust-principles/exhaust-and-harmful-emissions/
2.1.2.1. Particulate Matter
Particulate matter is a mixture of materials in their solid- phase and liquid-phase, resulting from the incomplete combustion of carbon in the fuel. They vary in size, with some being visible to the eye, while others are microscopic. Particulate matter formed in the combustion process act as carriers of adsorbed compounds, organic and inorganic. This is because of their large surface area to volume ratio.
2.1.2.2. Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx
These mainly include two gasses, Nitric oxide (NO), and NO2. Concentrations of NOx in diesel exhaust are typically between 50 and 1000 ppm, however, when they are expressed in mass units, NOx is usually expressed as NO2 equivalent. NO2 is a highly reactive gas and exhibits strong oxidation properties. NO is a colourless and odourless gas. In the laboratory, it may be synthesized directly from nitrogen and oxygen under high temperature and pressure:
N2 + O2 ↔ 2NO ………

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