Preservation of individual and the attainment of the individual happiness are the supreme goals of a liberal political system(Goodwin, 2007: 41). Liberalism as an ideology their economy is based on the doctrine of laissez-faire, Heywood contends that a distinctively liberal economic creed had developed that extolled virtues of the laissez-faire, the liberal ideologist condemns all forms of government intervention in the economy(Heywood, 2013:31), they believe that the economy functions much more better without the government taking part in
A liberal democracy also features absolute protection of an individual’s political and civil liberties. Liberal democracies are also seen as high quality democracies where minority’s rights are protected, freedom, equality and civic culture are held in high regard and protected through the power of the people. It is from the idea of liberalism that extensive freedom is provided to persons. Liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the freedom to assemble and peaceful protest, the freedom of movement, the freedom of religious and sexual practice and the freedom of identity and cultural expression. .
Liberal is a paradigm which is a belief in the positive uses of government to bring justice, equality of opportunity, peace and looks more to the nature of state. Liberalism is a philosophy based on the belief about the ultimate value of individual freedom and the opportunities for human progress. Liberalism is talking about rationality, moral autonomy, human rights, democracy, opportunity, and choice that built upon commitment to the principles of freedom and equality. There is a long traditional in Liberal thinking about international relations’ characteristic. .
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Liberalism is the “belief in the value of social and political change in order to achieve progress.”1 Originating in Europe, it arose during a period known as the Enlightenment, when men had the idea that if something could not be proved by logic or reasoning, it was not to be believed, and that the main aspects of human life were to be mathematical measurement and deduction and scientific experimentation.2 Liberalism was arrived at when people began to “seek for the natural laws that govern and direct human societies.”3 It focuses mainly on individualism and equality for all people. According to liberal beliefs, the foundation of human life comes from the possession of rights in freedom.4 They also believed that the collision of “natural” forces caused governments to arise. As a result of Liberalism, men began to think that freedom was the supreme principle of social life and that the laws that rule and manage human societies were to be natural, not divine. However, it was not only liberalism that brought about the American Revolution.
Liberalism also shares the idea with realism to use military power to get what they want or need, also military power can be used if other country threatening or bully on the own liberal state. But theoretically liberalism is the theory of peace and development and believes in measuring power through economy, liberal ideas such as freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, gender equality, international cooperation, freedom of speech and press, when with the other hand realism believes in ideas such as conflicts, aggression, militaristic expansions and also they believe that state would act according to their own ideas and needs when liberals believe that state would act according to their populations needs and ideas. But both theories share the idea that without military power state can be destroyed or insulted by another country. I consider myself as a liberal and mostly liberalism is theory which makes me thinking about things that can be changed in aggressive world by liberalism such as equal rights regardless of sexual orientation or to have every woman the same rights as men, through liberalism I also believe in freedom and equal living wage. I have sympathies to liberalism because believe in government actions to achieve equal opportunity and
important to see its role in the society. While understanding thematic approach to international law, one should not completely link such a discipline using a commercial approach. This commercial approach is used in contemporary international law. While understanding international law, there is a need to understand the term “world order”. According to Richard Falk, “world order is a system that consists of a behavior for security and changes identified by states, the structure of authority, conflicts, violence and international mediation” This current order is based on the behavior of states and its people.
In Judith Shklar’s well known 1989 essay, The Liberalism of Fear, Shklar analyzes her view on political liberalism. In other words, Judith believes that liberalism has only one potential purpose/goal. Judith Shklar mentions how the goal for liberalism is to ultimately fix the political conditions which is significant for personal freedom. Using this idea, Judith Shklar further demonstrates her views on liberalism by comparing liberalism of fear and other types of liberalism in her essay ( such as John Locked John Stuart Mill) . Judith Shklar believes that John Locke’s liberalism of natural rights is simply an attempt to fulfill an determined standard order “The liberalism of natural rights envisages a just society composed of politically sturdy citizens, each able and willing to stand up for himself and others” (26-27).
The second, often referred to as idealism, is argued, was never really a thought process, but was more geared towards the ideals of socialism. Finally, and endemic since the 1970’s, is the concept of liberal institutionalism. Generally, liberalism in international relations has been used to challenge the belief, that nation states were immovable political actors. Ultimately, liberalism professes to have the confidence that, both the state and human nature can change over
Constructivism in international relations only discusses the underlying theory and the theory of Liberal Realism, but there are several theories approaching agreed by constructivism. Constructivism Realism agrees with the theory that says the world is in anarchy (chaos). Constructivism also said that international relations can be established through conflict and cooperation. So here assessed the importance of existing institutions, namely through regulative and constitutive. Each country needs to comply with the decree.
Liberal Democracy is a democratic system of government in which individual rights and freedoms are officially recognized and protected, and the exercise of political power is limited by the rule of law. The word democracy is greek, the word “demos” means people and “kratos” means power. The idea of liberalism first began in the 1600’s with John Locke as he believed that the people should be allowed to remove the government currently ruling when they have misused their power for ulterior motives. Although the seed was planted in the 1600’s, liberal democracy only properly took form in the 1840’s in Canada. Australia and New Zealand followed not long after as they began to use the secret ballot system to elect political leaders.