3.2 Internationalization of Education in Japan: Great Education Reforms Japan has long been influenced by foreign education systems such as Chinese Confucianism and Buddhism since the 6th century and Dutch studies in the Edo period (1603–1868). In that context, it can be said that the internationalization of Japanese education proceeded with influences from the outside world. This was especially true in the Meiji era (1868–1912), when Japan’s internationalization was identical with the modernization of the country. The modernization of Japanese education started with the Meiji Restoration in the 1860s, when more than 250 years of feudal military government (the Edo period) came to an end and imperial rule was restored. Rappleye and Kariya (2011, p.53) point out that since the Meiji Restoration, Japan experienced three ‘Great Education Reforms’, namely the reform in the early Meiji era (1868–1890), during World War II and its aftermath (1937–1955), and the reform initiated under Prime Minister Nakasone’s Ad Hoc Council for Education (1983–1987).
During the beginning of the Meiji Period (1868-1912), there was a dramatic change in the way the nation functioned. western influences took hold politically, socially, economically and musically. The earliest version of the national anthem, Kimi ga yo, was performed by a brass band with instruments imported from Britain in 1870 (Wade 2005: 12). The education system was refashioned, based on western models. Japanese music was challenging to include in the curriculum, since every musical genre was associated with a specific social class and setting.
The foreign culture influence and is influenced by the local culture at the same time. Cantopop showed its high level of hybritidy in its music products. Since1970s, abundant of Cantopop music was composed of Western songs or even Japanese pop songs with local Cantonese lyrics. Coincidentally, the two identical types of Cantonese lyrics could also be merge perfectly in the foreign
Woodblock prints, for example, increased. Interest in literature and fine arts, like painting, also increased. The Shogunate adopted many Confucian values and incorporated many of them into Japanese culture so that graceful and thoughtful works of art, literature and theatre were created. Life in Japan seemed peaceful and unchanging, which sparked the creation of the ukiyo, or “Floating Word”. However, suddenly in 1853, American Commodore Matthew Perry and his black ships appeared at Edo Bay.
For the longest time, Japan had been an isolationist country, a country that let no foreigners enter it, but that changed in 1853 Japan started to open its borders once more. As it did so, Western influence on its culture began to grow. While the changes in its war tactics were the most famous and well-known form of Westernization, there were many smaller ways Japan's culture changed. Some of these ways were changes in fashion and architecture. Some of the biggest changes in Japanese culture that were caused by Westernization was the fashion industry.
One of the printing styles, Ukiyo-e, was used by Japanese printmakers in the Edo period. The subjects revolved around popular culture such as Kabuki actors, sumo wrestling, and Geisha (Harris 9). Though the practice of using woodblock to print has decreased over the years, Hokusai’s The Great Wave has helped to elevate Japanese art to the rest of the world. This essay will examine the creation process of The Great Wave and its aesthetics. The focus will be on the impact of this artwork and its symbolism.
(a) Discuss the Main Bank System of Japan. The formation of Japan's main banking system has a historical background. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan's banking sector developed greatly. At this time, the government implemented a lenient policy toward the banks. After the "Showa Financial Crisis" in 1927, the government stepped up its restrictions on banking.
Chiang Kai-shek and modernization Whenever someone uses the term “Modern China” today, one might immediately think of the rapidly developing China after the economic reform proposed by Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s. In European, however, modernization had already begun by the early 20th century, and it brings up a question: Had the Chinese authority that ruled at that time tried to do anything to modernize China? From 1926 to 1928, the Kuomintnag(KMT), literally means the Nationalist Party, which mainly led my the generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, had launched the Northern Expedition and eventually reunified China. The success ended the chaotic warlord era and allowed the centralization of power. The reunification also brought China a relatively stable environment for modernization which lasted ten years.
In this context, the question "Where does Japan stand?" can be raised. Japanese scholars as well as scholars of Japanese law from other countries frequently discuss this issue. On the one hand side, Japanese civil law, and in particular the provisions in the Japanese Civil Code (Minpō, enacted in 1898) regarding contract law, are based on European models of contract law of the 19th century. Japanese contract law was especially influenced by the drafts of the German Civil Code, which eventually came into force on January 1, 1900, and German prevalent legal theories around that time.
Using this name, Ezaki shows the will to have an international weight. Actually, after its success in Japan, in 1932 the first Glico factory was established in Dalian China. In 1982, to have an access to Europe, he chose to establish in France. Recently, Glico tried to go in the USA and in Indonesia, we will closely study the different methods used by Glico to be successful in those very different regions. Glico