The findings revealed that the study area experienced a significant reduction in agricultural land and this leads to continued disappearance of farmlands. It leads to loss of livelihood, reduction in food supply and increase in poverty. These changes are attributed to urban expansion, population growth, socio economic factors, environmental variables and natural factors. Harris, (2013) evaluated that the current land use patterns and urban and agricultural land use change from 1989 to 2012 in Shippensburg. The paper clearly showed that agricultural land was being converted to urban land at high rates from 1989 to 2011.
This is because the higher demand for food and fuel causes the removal of protective vegetation from the area, meaning that rain-splash erosion and aeolian erosion can occur. The chance of desertification increases when an area is experiencing drought conditions. This is because the soil is already stressed by the processes of overcropping and overgrazing, and so a drought dries out the soil completely and causes it to become useless and desertified. In Sahelian countries such as Chad and Niger, cash crops (Crops only sold for their monetary value) such as cotton and cashew nuts are grown in massive plantations as part of economic reforms known as structural adhustment programmes. This is because the owners of these farms receive debt relief for growing this crop.
This massive land-use and land-cover change is due increase the need of land for settlement and agricultural. Land is scarce (limited) natural resource, which cannot be changed when the number of population increases. Land-use should correspond to land capacity and at the same time it should, respect global climate system and the environment (FAO/UNEP, 1999). Land-use is converting over time and the most important driving force of land-use changes is the human need. Human population is increasing and it causes transformation of natural ecosystems into human landscapes.
Thus, when forests are removed, it is less likely to rain. There will also be lesser trees to facilitate more water to infiltrate the ground and funnel water into underground aquifers where it is stored to supply during droughts. Hence, deforestation has resulted in flash flood during heavy rainfall, and without the roots holding the soil, it will eventually lead to soil erosion. Furthermore, the soil will be washed away into rivers when there is heavy rainfall, causing river carrying capacity to be reduced and thus, increasing the risk of floods. Both droughts and floods carry severe consequences as eroding topsoil, flooding rice fields and filling in irrigation canals will constrain food production.
Increasing population, intense land cultivation, uncontrolled grazing, and deforestation often lead to, or exacerbate, soil erosion (Tadesse, 2001; Bewket, 2002). These factors undermine agricultural productivity and frustrate economic development efforts, especially in developing countries where there is heavy land dependence (Shiferaw & Holden, 2000; Feoli et al., 2013) in low external-input farming systems (e.g., the Ethiopian
Argumentative Essay Zeena Morar 12J Climate change is currently being felt around the world and unless the developed world makes substantial changes to its selfish ways, we are all doomed to face the fires of hell on earth. One third of the earth’s land is currently threatened as what we do to the air, land and water affects the balance of ecosystems and ultimately the world. The developed world uses wood for mining, building, furniture and paper. Saw and paper mills that are used to create these products, pollute the air and water. When large areas of trees are cut down, the earth loses an important source of oxygen.
In some case “human activities have been and are continuing to alter the environment on local and global scales. Many of these changes are leading to dramatic changes in the biotic structure and piece of ecological communities, either from the mislaying of species or from the introduction of exotic species. Such alterations can preferable change the ways in which ecosystems work. Altered biodiversity has led to widespread cover for a number of both market (e.g., ecotourism, “mining” for medicines) and non-market (e.g., ethical, aesthetic) explanation” (Barbier et al. 1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al.
It results from the deliberate removal of forest cover. This conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development. It is seemingly a primary concern for the developing countries of the tropics causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse effect. In addition to conversion, it also includes degradation which reduces forest quality, density and trees structure, supply of ecological services, the biomass of plants and animals, diversity of species and genetics. Drivers of Deforestation The drivers of deforestation are complex and interconnected.
CLIMATE CHANGE: PRESERVE OUR ENVIRONMENT The earth’s climate has been constantly changing over the past millions of years. Dynamic changes have begun to affect human lives emotionally and physically. Reliable evidences and sources have suggested the past to be colder and warmer. However, these changes have been occurring even rapidly compared to the past years. It all started when scientist was giving their perceptions on who was responsible for climate change.