Human influences on soil erosion Aspect 1: The effect overgrazing has on soils. Overgrazing is when a farmer stocks (Keeps) too many animals in their land. Examples of such animals are sheep, which pull up the roots of plants, cattle, which kick up the top layer of dirt which is then blown away by the wind, and goats. These animals all damage the surface of the soil and speed up soil erosion. These animals eat the vegetation cover of the area and their hooves dig into the soil, which compacts it into a hard surface in dry regions, meaning it is given a platy structure, which is a very poorly drained soil structure.
However, they suffer from being heavily leached, meaning that many nutrients and minerals are lost from the subsoil. As this leaching has being ongoing for millions of years, the soils are deprived of many nutrients which are required by the flora above the surface. Tropical soils tend to have an extremely thin top layer. This layer is usually composed of decay from the foliage and animal remains. The plants in the rainforest provide fallen leaves and branches to the forest floor which are consumed and broken down by soil organisms and are converted back into nutrients which are consumed by the flora.
Vegetation located in prairies, forests, and other natural areas also plays a similar role. The surface of the soil works as a filter that allow water pass through at a certain rate which known as the infiltration rate or infiltration capacity. A runoff may be created when precipitation deposits water to the soil surface quicker than it can be absorbed. The excess water stays on the surface and flows downslope as runoff. If the rate of precipitation is 5 centimeters per hour, but the rate of infiltration is only 2.5 centimeters per hour, surface runoff is produced at the rate of 2.5 centimeters per hour, even if the soil is not entirely soaked.
This can effect crop production which is essential due to the growing population of the world. Over population often puts pressure on a country to produce more. This leads to poor farming practices, overgrazing and monoculture. The constant land degradation and low rainfall causes desertification in arid and semi-arid areas. The desertification results in unproductive farmland which increases the pressure to produce food even more.
Sedimentation and pollution in the streams or rivers causes effecting the life duration and quality of fish and other species. Land degradation are also reducing the water holding capacity of soil on the contrary, increased by flooding and leaching of water and nutrient losses mainly as nitrate form. The other substantial change in land usage is the maintaining of sustainability. According to FAO statistics, 28% of the total earth surface have any limits on its use for agriculture while 28% is too dry, 23% has chemical imbalances, 10% is too wet, 6% is permanently frozen, and remaining 22% the soil is to shallow for use as arable land. Altgouhg there are some discussions about the renewable subject of soil today, generally if the soil formation rate exceed the degredation rate, soil is accepted as renewable, on the contrary the degredation surpasses the formation, soil is accepted as
deplete moisture from the soil through transpiration, and cause the soil to be differentially wetted in areas of varying vegetation. Permeability Soils with higher permeabilities, particularly due to fissures and cracks in the field soil mass, allow faster migration of water and promote faster rates of
The loss of land is also due to mining as well creating another source of income in South America. Although deforestation is a popular way of means, the effects of it are long lasting. Deforestation leads to issues in South America such as mudslides, loss of virgin forests, loss of habitats, and the loss of homelands. Without trees to secure fertile soil, erosion occurs and sweeps the land turning it into rivers. It is estimated that one third of the world’s farmable land has
Particularly in developing countries, a major problem with farming techniques is that they can lead to soil erosion and the degradation of soil quality and fertility from overuse, acidification, salinsation and other chemical contamination. Certain crops, the livelihood of large parts of developing countries – coffee, corn, rice, wheat and tobacco, cause more soil erosion than others. Although these crops are essential to the local community and economy, for farming practices to be sustainable, farmers must be persuaded to modify their practices and apply soil conservation techniques. Which are the (relevant) practices that have an impact on the respective environmental problem? When farmland is ploughed, topsoil is exposed and may be blown away by the wind or washed away by rain.
As the areas for agricultural purposes continue to decrease, farmers would need to use the same land repeatedly through intensive cultivation. Upon using this, the farmers must make use of the mechanized farming and make a sudden shift from their traditional farming system (Karim, 2013). Karim highlighted that: “With the increase of population, people put continuous pressure on land, without allowing them any time off. The resulting consequence is the deterioration of the soil which keeps the land fully dependent on chemical fertilizer and uncontrolled irrigation. Therefore, peasants moving towards mechanized farming no longer depend on seasonal rain and also at the same time, are totally dislodged from indigenous farming mechanisms.
1. Introduction As per the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land and Plant Nutrition Management Service, in excess of 6% of the world's territory is influenced by either salinity or sodicity . A significant part of the world's territory is not cultivated, yet a critical extent of cultivated area is salt-influenced. Salinity has existed even before humans and agriculture but has been exasperated due to certain agricultural practices such as irrigation that causes water tables. This results in dissolved salts being accumulated in the soil water to a degree that restrains plant development.