The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
First, the 'acquisition-learning hypothesis ', in the learning, learners focus on rules and forms of the language, and in the acquisition, learners focus on communicating messages and meanings. Secondly, the 'monitor hypothesis ' which says what have been learned could use it to edit the speech and give a perfect massage. Thirdly, the 'natural order hypothesis ' assumes that the second language learners begin with known steps as the steps in learning the first language. Fourthly, the 'comprehensible input hypothesis ' it reflects the Krashen 's view that second language learning occurs as a result of exposure to varied linguistic input. Finally, the 'affective filter hypothesis ' it suggests, some variables, such as motivation, Receptivity, and self-confidence, which impact on second language learners ' success or failure.
Research Questions From the literature review, it was established that there were several factors affecting language learning and acquisition. More specifically, it was revealed that factors such as exposure at an early age, motivation, attitudes, incentives and educational system can influence language acquisition. However, most of the research were conducted in the west and were focused on students as subjects to the study and foreigners working in the country where they need to learn the language to lengthen their range of employment opportunity. As the AEC is fast approaching, it was rationalized that it is beneficial to know the English language readiness of the Thai people, especially those directly working with English speaking ASEAN
His books; Krashen has writes many books in the area of second language acquisition involve the following ; The power of reading ,principles and practice in second language acquisition , the natural approach; language acquisition in classroom , educating English learners ; language diversity in the classroom , second language acquisition and second language learning , foreign language education the easy way , the input hypothesis ; issues and implications , fundamentals of language education. The five hypothesises of second language acquisition; 3- 1-the acquisition / learning
Abstract: This paper is about the link between innateness and language acquisition.On the one hand, innateness is the genetic ability of human beings to acquire language. That is, humans are born with a genetic capacity to acquire any language they are exposed to. On the other hand, language acquisition is the process of getting the language unconsciously through communicating with people in a society. This paper presents some ideas about innateness, language acquisition, mentalism, lateralization, environment and some more important opinions of scholars in this respect. 1.
Over the past fifty years, research into the acquisition of a second language has progressed. The research has gone against the traditional belief that our students can learn and master a second language through drills, grammar practice, metacognition and other forms of measured output practice. Contrary to these beliefs, the aforementioned practices do not aid children in learning a language. In today’s schools, more and more teachers are beginning to follow on the footsteps of new research and change the way they teach so that they can set their students up for prosperity when it comes to learning their second language. The style of teaching that teachers have found to help students learn their second langauge is modeled after Stephen Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition, which states that students learn more about a language when they learn less about grammar rules, and more about the language itself.
1. INTRODUCTION The debate of how language can be acquired has been ongoing for decades now. There have been arguments on how language and cognition is by nature, that is, it is natural and not learned, it is something genetic and innate and certainly not man-made. However some argue that language is acquired through nurture; it is learnt according to the environmental influences and by the society in which one lives in. In this essay I’ll state the approaches to studying language of both Burrhus Frederic Skinner and Aram Noam Chomsky, discuss their differences and similarities, and how Edmund Husserl would respond to them then proceed to compare their positions to that of Husserl.
In my case, I learned my fourth language at the age of 10 to 14, right around the end of the critical period. Consequently, I had been in the transitional phase between language acquisition and language learning. As described above, my experience was a mix of spontaneous interaction and methodical study of the technicalities of Mandarin. According to a recent study, this synergy of language acquisition and language learning is most effective when it progresses from methodical learning to spontaneous acquiring (Zaščerinska, 2010). This was the case in my experience.
This natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and, therefore, teachers cannot change the order of grammatical teaching sequence. The Input hypothesis refers to language acquisition when learners receive messages that they can understand. The comprehensible input must be a step beyond the learners’ correct language ability and must allow learners to continue to progress with their language development. The Effective filter hypothesis is like a “screen” that is influenced by emotional variables that can prevent learning. It does not impact acquisition directly, but prevents input from reaching the language acquisition part of the brain.
strategies that contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and (which) aﬀect learning directly’’ (Rubin, 1987, p. 23). Oxford (1990) further defined language learning strategies as steps taking to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information. O’Mally and Chamot (1990) studies viewed learning strategies as “the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information” (p. 1). The term ‘strategy’ in the context of language learning refers to a specific type of action on behavior reported to by a language learner in order to improve performance in both using an learning a language (Naiman , Frolich, Stem & Todesco 1978; Wenden & Rubin 1987; Oxford 1990). Good and successful learners can improve their learning process by exploiting the strategies and make the less effective students follow the same