In the first extract, the head teacher uses both languages to speak to the diverse audience, to convey the message about school openings and closings. In the second extract from another Gujarati class in another school bilingualism is viewed as an instructional strategy intended to clarify the pedagogic task, where teacher gives students a pair work and students are clarifying the task with teacher before getting down to work. In the third extract, the use of both languages is the interactional pattern between the teacher using English, while the student insisting on Gujarati. In the fourth extract, bilingualism, observed and interviewed from the Mandarin school in the Chinese case study where the teacher does storytelling, is intended for engaging students, clarifying the conveyed message that is not achievable through the L2 and for questioning and challenging the story. The fifth extract comes from the same Chinese school, where the aim of bilingualism is to make a bilingual label quest, where translation method performs a strategy of accomplishing one task before passing to another one.
Bilingual employees on staff are a valuable resource to a company. Being bilingual in the workplace gives individuals a greater edge in getting jobs, better pay, and higher ranks within the corporation as they are required to reach international markets. The addition of bilingual speakers in the workplace gives companies and businesses the chance to expand their markets, reach a wider range of clientele, and create relationships with international companies (Fox n.d.). Companies look for bilingual over monolingual speakers due to their ability to help globalize one’s business. One bilingual employee can help bridge the language barrier between companies across the globe due to speaking two languages.
These programs are often classified as transitional, developmental, or two-way bilingual education, depending on the program’s methods and goals. However, bilingual education faces many challenges while its historical process and so many different strategies are developed instead of classical methods for learners. These are different ways to increase achievement levels of students and develop their relationship with their languages. This research aims to shows that; there are many strategies to develop learning when context and individual differences are used as base in the bilingual education. Learning Strategies in Bilingual Education Bilingualism is the ability to use two or more different languages.
Language has a major impact in everyone’s lives, considering that it represents the means of expressing, delivering ideas, opinions, and connecting with every human being. What about people who master, not only a fluent language, but also another one, experiencing throughout their lives the phenomen called “bilingualism”? Researchers in the field proposed various definitions of bilingualism. The main definition of it reffers to “fluency in two languages” (Life with Two Languages, François Grosjean). However, the concept of bilingualism is primarly related to the opportunity to explore the facets of life in terms of two languages.
Early Childhood bilingualism Having exposed what entails to acquire languages, it is essential to bring up that the focus of this conceptual framework is not to just to determine and analyze what entails an early successive (sequential) bilingualism process, but also how this process contributes to better skills ' development. Following early childhood bilingual continuum, children who get to acquire an additional language are more competent that those who don’t have the chance. To begin with, McLaughlin (1984) claims that from two to six year of age children develop their language competences through a natural acquisition process, and by the time they reach formal schooling they have already mastered them in an exceptional way. Also, points out that children play an active role on their language skills development. They get more curious to learn about the social aspects of the language, and learn to control their own actions and thoughts.
According to the study done by Cahnmann & Varghese (2005) , English-mediated programs can offer many job opportunities for learners because there has been increasing demand for bilingual job hunters in the twenty-first century and a bilingual tends to possess a higher level of self-esteem and confidence than a monolingual. Halle et al. (2014) presents that the bilingual education system can help EFL learners to improve their emotional intelligence (EI) which is one of the most important skills in twenty first century workplace through improving social and emotional developments: self-regulation, and social competence. Furthermore, bilingual learners’ possession of better understanding and interacting skills through learning more than one language as well as cultures at the same time help them deal with the differences and solving problems appropriately because they have greater inhibitory control than monolingual learners, tend to be sophisticated thinkers, have more flexible thinking, and approach conflicts from different perspectives (Halle et al., 2014). The research paper based on the collection of the data from the socio-economic benefits of bilingual education from two ethnographic studies of bilingual teachers and their students in the United States shows that bilingual schooling in which English language teaching is applied prepares learners to be able
However, this does not mean that the emotional expressions of a person’s second language can never be “true”, rather, the reason is that the emotion terms of second language may not have the subjective force that those of the first language have through their autobiographical grounding. Wierzbicka in her paper claims that the point is particularly important to her is that experience of bilingual people should not be construed as merely their experience of speaking two languages but rather as their experience of living with other people through two different languages. To exemplify, one of the most important insights emerging from the recent literature bearing on the issue ‘bilingualism and emotions’ is that a person’s language acquired first is often endowed with a greater emotional force than the second
The questions that some may ask themselves can be “What does being bilingual really mean?” or “What is the effect that this way of living has upon someone?”. The texts clearly sorts out these matters with powerful arguments from the author’s very own life experience. It proves that being bilingual very often means belonging to two completely different worlds. Hence, this discrepancy has a major effect on our words, actions, and the nature of our demeanor, on the
Anna Wierzbicka, the author of the article “Bilingual Lives, Bilingual Experience” is right about the fact that “the vocabulary of emotions is undoubtedly different from language to language” because it depends on how every language expresses certain feelings. Many languages have certain words with no match in another language, like Anna Wierzbicka says: “for example the death of a loved person, can be interpreted by a speaker of Polish through the conceptual category of ‘nieszcze˛s´cie’ and by the speaker of English through the conceptual category of ‘grief’”. Being bilingual suppose switching from a language to another by taking in consideration the culture of that particular language and the way that feelings can be expressed using it. When bilingual people describe emotions, they tend to use words or expressions from their mother tongue because they find no match from the second language. For instance, an Italian who lives in United States of America, although he knows English, he will often use the expression “mamma mia” due to the fact that he finds in his mother tongue a better correspondent for his feeling.
Several experts have warned that participation in all English classrooms, structured English immersion, or transitional bilingual education may contribute to subtractive bilingualism. When language-minority students are not fully accepted by native speakers of the societal language because of their accented speech or ethnic appearance the loss of proficiency or lack of further development in their native language can result in low self-esteem and negative self-image. Lilly Wong Fillmore described the psychological problems that occurred when young English-language learners, enrolled in all-English classrooms, lost their ability to communicate with family members in their native language.