The formalists primarily concerned themselves with form as content – notions, emotions or humanity – was merely a justification to shape language in a literary fashion. Thus, a formalist approach empowers the reader to embark on an observant reading. The New Critics were similarly quite concerned on the text and debated that literary language conjures profound and tributary meanings, courtesy of their belief that it was connotative. However, unlike Formalism, New Criticism did not actively deliberate on the segregation of form and content. Rather, texts were regarded as mechanisms fused by their strategies, ideas, motifs and styles.
The social identification theory suggests that if we have no language identification in the other cultural groups, it will be leading in the negative consequences. Language is far beyond the communication tool (Imberti, 2007; Lauring, 2008) and this tool effects the lives and social status of ESL learners. In relation to language and culture, Byram and Kramsch (2008) presented the notion of teaching language as culture not the teaching of language and culture. They were of the view that now a days foreign language teachers are facing challenges in the teaching of second language "as it presents, expresses and embodies mindsets and worldviews that might be different from those of our American students, " and so they presented a method of teaching "that approaches language as both a personal and cultural / historical event and that places individual experience into a larger social and historical framework" (p.21). This type of notion gives the ethnographic and critical outlook with a holistic view of language and
The soldiers had to build aqueducts themselves. Another thing Rome did to try to meet the common good was create roads. At first, the only roads in Rome were grass and mud paths, which were slow and unsafe to travel on. The Roman Republic knew they would need new roads so that they could get to military situations quickly. The new roads were made of stone and mud.
British English is used in the United Kingdom and also in the Commonwealth Countries as the British was responsible for the Commonwealth nations. American English is used in the United States predominantly. Although English was introduced to America by the British, there is a vast differences. This English diversity reflects to different cultures in Britain and America. Therefore, if the individuals want to better realize the different cultures between this two countries, it is necessary to cognize the three major differences between American English and British English which are vocabulary used, spelling and grammar.
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list of synonyms defining hard word which borrowed from Latin or French. In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes.
It seems make no sense since it is commonly acknowledged that texts are created and authored by authors. Barthes’s insights on the practical usage of languages as a symbol can provide an interpretation for this philosophical reverse. When we use words to express our thoughts, in reality, we translate the inner thoughts to others by commonly-used words, which was called “a ready-formed dictionary” by Bathes. Based on the standpoint that our thoughts can only become understandable by being translated into existed words, he continued to use Quincey’s example to demonstrate the function of language as a mediation (Barthes 146). In order to translate more ideas and images into language, Quincey, who was expert in Greek, created “an unfailing dictionary” for himself, which contained more “extensive and complex” terms than daily-used languages (146).
delivered by the language structure of a native speaker) for speakers of a few dialects of English and proper in diverse registers for those dialects. A descriptive grammar structure takes a gander at the way a language is actually used by its speakers and after that endeavors to investigate it and figure rules about the structure. Descriptive grammar does not manage what is great or awful language it uses; forms and structures that will not be used by the speakers with Standard English would be viewed as substantial and included. It is a sentence structure taking into account the way a dialect really is
In his 1986 essay “The Translator’s Invisibility”, Venuti stated that, along with “the increasingly sophisticated literature on translation”, the urgently needed task of demystifying the process “had been initiated by the prefaces that translators themselves have occasionally appended to their work” where they describe the “labor of transformation” of the text (1986: 181). Venuti’s introduction in 1992 to Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology gave the impression that he was not as optimistic about translators’ prefaces and their contribution to the struggle to make translation a visible activity. He believed translators were so busy moving from text to text that they had no time for methodological reflection. Translators are always hard at work, but they are producing translations, not translation commentary, criticism, or theory; they appear as aesthetically sensitive amateurs or talented craftsmen, but not critically self-conscious writers who develop an acute awareness of the cultural and social conditions of their
The weird words chosen during translating made the sentences looks out of place. Translators also face some difficulties in translating, for although they are competent enough in both source language and target languages to do translation, the difference in language families and cultural environment prevent them from doing so. Thus, this research aims to find out and analyze the procedures of translation used in translating adjectives from second person view in the book Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets into the target language text Harry Potter dan Bilik Rahsia. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE
Previous researches and prevalent issues reveal that the world has indeed become a global world with a dominate language which is the English language. English has become a unifying factor in multilingual multicultural nations. In Nigeria precisely, the English language occupies a unique position and consequently plays a very significant role in the formation of national values and integration of the nation state. This is owing to the fact that the country is a multilingual nation with diverse ethnic groups and cultures. Such diversity has made it imperative on the nation to use English in almost all her correspondences.