Introduction The manner in which liberalism is understood would differ according to what theory or ideology is being explained under. Liberals take a positive view regarding the human nature, they contend that individuals are self-centered and compete with each other and they certainly share a lot of things together, this is one of the reasons why the individual is important in a society they help in maintaining the state and how the states will cooperate with each other. In this assignment I am going to elaborate the difference between liberalism as an ideology and liberalism as a theory in international relations, I will also describe contemporary development in international relations that links up with liberalism. Institutional liberalism
No one would want their government to fall apart, do they? With the knowledge of democracies and monarchies, it is very clear that a democratic system is more efficient, and beneficial. To begin, people need to take in account that democracies allow people to have more say. For example, the website “governmentvs.com” states many ideas about the people getting the right to speak out. It states, “Majority rules, people’s rights, power of voting…” This
Liberalism contains various elements specific to itself as well as can be divided into two main forms. The fundamental elements which are included in both forms liberalism are individualism, equality, constitutionalism and freedom. Individualism is the concept most thought of with regards to liberalism than any other. Individualism can be seen to be the belief that humans are individuals above and beyond anything else, and the most important or “supremely important” (Heywood 2013). Individualism also takes us to hold that not only is the individual the most important, but that it is the most important “over any social group or collective body”, therefore, individuals are seen as standing alone, being responsible for themselves before they are seen to be members of any group (Heywood
However, liberalism nowadays supporting a much stronger role for government in regulating and manipulating the private economy and protecting the welfare of the society. Government focus on giving support to economically and socially disadvantaged. Ideology of liberalism focusing on three different cores which are the moral core, the political core and the economic core. However, moral core is most significant in liberalism because moral core lies within individual and guide individual’s action. The moral core involves an affirmation of basic values and rights that can be attribute to the nature of a human being that are freedom, dignity, and life.
The person wants the state’s traditions to stay stagnant as it will lead to individuals with initiative to come out on top. The source, regarding the issue of the status quo in society, is a belief that connects to conservatism. Classical Liberalism is rooted in liberalism, meaning that the basic principles of democracy are behind their ideas in benefitting society. The intentions of conservatives are to provide opportunities through a private enterprise economy. The system highly encourages the ideals of individualism.
Within the Westminster system there is greater leeway given to the party in government when it comes to patronage potential that could have the party more reliant on state funds. However in the 1970s the Labour party attempted to introduce public subsidies to parties but ‘hesitated to go further than introducing modest grants to the opposition parties in parliament (‘Short Money’) in 1974 (Detterbeck, 2005). The access to wealthy donors, the Conservatives while in opposition rendered inter-party cooperation unnecessary and infeasible, limiting the extent of the cartel model outlined by Katz and Mair at that time. The
Samuel Huntington (1993) believed that economic modernization might increase the growth of urbanization and the rising of middle class, which could unleash a constellation of social forces to pine for democratic governance. In addition, the middle class tended to be revolutionary in its early development and they became conservative over time. However, the landscape of middle class in China was not the same as the Chinese middle class remained conservative all the time, as they did not ask for the autonomy and independent from the
states are in Anarchy. 3) Neoclassical Realism: The actions of the states in international politics cannot be explained just through human nature and system, it needs methodical variables- distribution of power and threats from other states as well as domestic institutes. Liberalism: Liberalism is another leading theory in International relations. According to liberals, states are in anarchical system and there is a perception of pluralism of other actors that play important role in international politics and policies. Liberals also emphasizes on mutual welfares of the states and international collaboration.
A liberal democracy also features absolute protection of an individual’s political and civil liberties. Liberal democracies are also seen as high quality democracies where minority’s rights are protected, freedom, equality and civic culture are held in high regard and protected through the power of the people. It is from the idea of liberalism that extensive freedom is provided to persons. Liberties such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the freedom to assemble and peaceful protest, the freedom of movement, the freedom of religious and sexual practice and the freedom of identity and cultural expression. .
“Neoliberalism is in the first instance a theory of political economic practices that proposes that human well-being can best be advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework characterized by strong private property rights, free markets and free trade”. (Harvey 2005) The idea of neoliberalism has evolved through different stages in the past and it has created many problematic outcomes as a result. Those stages mainly include classical liberalism (Adam Smith), embedded liberalism (Keynes), neoliberalism (Friedman, Chicago Boys) and the post-neoliberalism era(Harvey): The first stage involves the idea of classical liberalism which came from Adam Smith who is very well-known in modern economics. He believed that “the welfare of the society is realized when the individual is free to pursue his or her own interests”. (Adam Smith).