Positive emotions produce novel and broad-ranging thoughts and actions that are usually not critical to one’s immediate safety, well-being, or survival (Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson & Cohn, 2008). Positive emotions are the markers of optimal well-being by producing satisfaction and happiness in certain moments that are characterized by positive emotions such as love, interest, joy and contentment (Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot 1991). Barbara (2001) proposed three levels of contribution of positive emotions to enhance well-being. 1. Positive emotions broaden individual’s thought-actions repertoires and produce long lasting personal resources of well-being.
In general, persons with low self-esteem are motivated more by self-maintenance than by self-enhancement (Covington & Beery, 1976). Self-awareness theory is motivation to change arises from one 's awareness of an incongruity between one 's idealized self-concept and one 's self-image. The individual 's evaluation of self as less than desirable motivates him or her to improve his/her behavior in order to maintain self-esteem. At first glance, "self-awareness theory" appears to be a cognitive consistency theory; but in fact the self-esteem motive, activated by a negative self-evaluation, is offered as the major impetus for change (Hull & Levy, 1979). Duval & Wicklund emphasize self-focused attention as the initial step
Mastery experiences are the greatest way to increase self efficacy because people are more likely to do something similar to what they have already achieved but it is not a healthy self-efficacy if you are just mastering your knowledge about certain things, also difficult and new task are needed to be attempted to develop a strong sense of efficacy. VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE It is all about the models or the observations of the success and failures of others who is similar to you. It simply states that watching someone like you succeed will increase the attempt of self-efficacy and if someone like you fail under your observation will surely threatens your
The truth is that happiness is a complex emotion and is nearly impossible to measure by what happens in a person’s life. Many would think that the ideal situation for a human would be to be happy and cheerful all the time. Happy emotions are good and healthy in their own right, but it is also helpful for a person to have sad and gloomy emotions. Robert BiswasDiener quotes in Sharon Begley’s essay “Happiness: Enough Already” that “If you’re totally satisfied with your life and with how things are going in the world, you
It refers to the evaluative and affective aspects of the self, to how "good" or "bad" we feel toward ourselves. It is the outcome of the self’s capacity for reflexivity, that is, the capability to look at oneself and to evaluate what one sees. Actually, self-esteem is very important factor in second language learning and academic achievements because, when learners do not trust in their capacities, or have the so called: “low self-esteem”, this will lead to “academic failure”. Thus, it can be said that, its absence produces the suspicion on learners ' own abilities which lead them to perform a low outcome due to the lack of self- confidence. Over and above, students who have low self -esteem are more likely to experiment anxiety.
Self-confidence has much to do with personality development, and psychological stability. It is also associated with well-being, happiness; whereas low levels of self-confidence increase the probability that one will be at risk from anxiety, tension, and depression (Al-Salameh, 2011). It is essential for healthy balanced growth and development of a human being (Majidi, 2012). The importance of self-confidence includes competence, trust, development of self-esteem, the ability to enjoy life, and the ability to live with confidence. She described it as a thing that is more important than skills, knowledge and experience (Novak,
Stress can have positive effects too. According to Hans Selye, the endocrinologist who did pioneering work on stress response, not all stress is bad, it can be viewed as ‘stimulation to growth and development, it is challenge and variety, it is the spice of life’. Eustress / Positive stress This occurs when the level of stress is enough to motivate someone to move into action in order to get things accomplished. Eustress (positive stress) increases the efficiency Distress / negative stress • This occurs when the level of stress is either too low or too high. Here the body and/or mind starts to respond negatively.
Romantic relationships in adolescence impact adolescents’ personal well-being (Tolman & McClelland, 2011) as well as later relationship outcomes (Madsen & Collins, 2011). Healthy adolescent romantic relationships are correlated with positive outcomes including relatively higher self-esteem, confidence, and a positive romantic self-concept (Collins, Welsh, & Furman, 2009; Furman & Shaffer, 2003). Negative outcomes range from self-silencing and rejection sensitivity to psychological maltreatment, depression, and poor academic performance (Collins et al., 2009, Williams, Connolly, & Cribbie, 2008). An important negative correlate in youth relationships is adolescent relationship abuse, which may be present in as many as two-thirds of adolescent
he key to a long and healthy life is happiness, but from birth to present day, humans have experienced many different emotions besides happiness. Feelings such as sadness, fear, anger, and depression are feared by those who believe that happiness is the most important emotion to feel in life. However, experiencing negative emotions is just as important as experiencing happiness. Negative emotions create an appreciation for happiness and also help direct thinking in a person. It is important to experience other emotions aside from happiness because negative emotions can stimulate the mind just as well as happiness.
Chapter I Introduction An individual’s self-esteem is one of the major factors in self-image or self-concepts and considered to be an important determinant in human behavior. As such self-esteem has been conceptualized and examined in a variety of ways in the educational, sociological and psychological contexts. Self-esteem according to Ferkany (2008) is “how a person feels about him or herself, good or bad, and as manifested in a variety of ways, for example, in pride or shame, but especially in self-confidence”. Possession of high self-esteem has positive behavioral benefits. These include independence, responsibility taking, and toleration of frustration, resistant to peer pressure, willingness to attempt new tasks and challenges, ability to handle positive and negative emotions, and willingness to offer assistance to others (Ferkany, 2008).