The sclera is a dense-fibrous connective tissue extends from the cornea to the optic nerve. The sclera is primarily consisted of avascular lamellae of collagen fibers which is responsible of bearing the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) . Collagen type I is the core components of the sclera and they have to provide the eye with compulsory mechanical strength to be able to bear the IOP as well . Each year above 1.9 million people experience one type of eye injuries in the United States alone . Trauma is one of the most usual ones which as a result of that nearly 30,000 people lost their vision in the United States .
The layer closest to the cornea is the mucin layer 0.02-0.05 µm thick, produced by conjunctival goblet cells. Mucin layer lowers tear's surface tension and forms loose adsorptive coating rendering the corneal and conjunctival surfaces wettable (1). Each layer of tear film can be affected by different diseases, each causing clinically dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Retinal detachment The retina is a complex layer of tissue that chemically converts light into electronic impulses and sends these impulses to the brain for analysis. It is made of layers of nerves, connecting cells known as neurons, supporting cells, and specialized cells known as rods and cones that do the actual conversion from light to chemicals that stimulate the nerves that transmit the impulse to the brain. Behind the rods and cones is a layer of pigment that absorbs light and helps the rods and cones to recover chemically for the next light impulse. The retina lines the back of the eye as the film in a camera. Behind or beneath the retina is a layer of blood vessels and pigment called the choroid.
Incisions are made behind the opercula to form a flap. Three thin slices (0.3 cm) of muscle and cartilage are consecutively removed from the head until three pea-shaped structures are revealed in a cavity. The brain is removed from the cavity by gently probing and scraping it out with a scalpel. Finally, the eye is removed from the socket by means of protruding a finger through the gills and loosening the muscles around the eye and it is pushed out from the socket. From the outside the eye is gently pulled away from the head to detach it completely from the
Research Question What is the impact of the distribution of skin receptors in different areas of the body? Or How do skin receptors' distribution change in different areas of your body? Background Research: Our Skin is the barrier that protects and keeps our internal organs from the outside. It is composed of three different layers: The Epidermis The dermis The Hypodermis The Epidermis Is the topmost layer, with a main objective of not letting anything that is possibly dangerous from entering our body. The Dermis is the second layer of skin.
Macular degeneration is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina known as the macula, which is responsible for central vision. Its cause is unknown, although it is known that the patient's age is the main risk factor. The macula is the part of the retina that allows you to read, watch television or recognize faces of people. Today, it is the leading cause of legal blindness in people over sixty years. However, peripheral vision remains unchanged, so that patients can manage without assistance for everyday tasks like walking.
Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment in middle aged people and visual loss in older people. It affects almost all individuals who have had diabetes for more than fifteen years. It affects both Type 1 and Type 2 individuals. Diabetic retinopathy is hardly detected in the first few years of diabetes. It is the most common micro vascular complication of people with diabetes.
Affordance between the characteristic and functions of the spectacles can be observed. For an example, the handles also called as temples between the sides of the specs affords holding where it gives a grip so that our fingers will not slip away while wearing the spectacles. There is a curvature at the tip of the spectacles on both sides that affords the gripping on the earpiece. Furthermore, our nose is in between our eyes so the distance of the specs from the eyes depends on how high a nose can be because the bridge solders inhibits the movement of specs unless the nose pads are adjusted. Although the nose pads limits user’s action but it gives a good design constrain.