Essay On Macular Edema

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The eye is the organ of vision, it is sensitive to light, and each eye is housed in an orbit that is a cavity in the skeleton of the face. It is a spherical structure about 2.4 cm in diameter. [1][2]

The wall of the eyeball is composed of three layers of concentric tissues.
a. The device layer is a protective cover layer called sclera, consists of two elements [3, 4]:
 Sclera covers about five-sixths of the surface of the eye.
 The cornea, the peripheral layer consists of a sort of bulge-shaped transparent window.
b. The middle layer is called uvea, is also divided into two elements[4,5]:
 Choroid, a thin vascular layer between the sclera and the retina, rich in vessels and nourishing.
 The iris is a small disc pigmented containing muscle tissue in its thickness, pierced at its center with a variable diameter orifice, the pupil, and arranged vertically
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Macular edema is a common denominator for many retinal diseases that lead to a more or less severe visual loss, it is the accumulation of fluid in the macula causing its thickening. It occurs when the blood vessels in the retina are bleeding [15].
Macular edema is not a disease, but is the result of one, can be caused by many factors including:
 Metabolic conditions (diabetes)
 Blood vessel diseases (vein occlusion)
1.1.2.3 Retinal detachment
Retinal detachment is caused by the presence of a small fluid pocket under the retina. It follows, in most of cases, a tear in the retina that allows the intraocular fluid to infiltrate and lifting. The separated zone no longer works.
The retinal detachment is a serious condition that usually affects middle-aged or older. If not treated quickly, it causes problems and vision loss [17]

Retinal detachment risk is greater
• From 40 years,
• Previous retinal detachment in your other eye,
• family history of retinal detachment,
• Certain eye

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