The main cause of food insecurity in Africa is the inability to of citizens to gain access to food due to poverty. Many factors have contributed to this problem which leads to an increase in the prevalence of food insecurity (Mwaniki, 2015, p. 1). Factors contributing to food insecurity include: • Drought and other extreme weather events. In recent times it has been seen that major food crisis has been a result of “drought or extreme weather conditions’’, this impacted negatively on crop harvests which in turn caused a food shortage and an increase in food prices (Harvesthelp, 2012). • Pests, livestock diseases and other agricultural problems.
The agricultural sector is crippled by perpetual drought cycle, desertification, high population growth rate and lack of infrastructure thus the agricultural sector is kept only at subsistence level (Rajak, 2011). The Horn of Africa suffered a food crisis in 2006, and the effected countries include Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Djibouti, and the main cause was a severe drought. The crisis was further worsened by military conflicts in the area which prevented the humanitarian aid from reaching the most affected regions. The crisis lead to a lack of access to clean water and sanitation for over 12 million people. The droughts have also weakened resilience of the land and people diminishing the prospects of ever achieving future water and food security (Munang & Nkem,
The economic implications may be short-term or long-term. For instance, reduced lean body mass and fatigue can limit productivity, especially in developing countries where manual labour is required. The high fatality rate associated with malnutrition reduces the working age population. Reduction of malnutrition by half by 2025 may generate annual savings of up to $376 million in African countries. Furthermore, the World Food Programme calculates that US$3.2 billion of monetary aid is required to reach all 66 million of hungry children worldwide.
The poor harvest in Africa that already been a long time is cause by the climate change and the lack of agricultural equipment. Climate change such as drought and other extreme weather cause poor harvest in Africa facing the problem of the lack of water. As most of the water are dry out, the situation for ground had become not
The following reasons make the extent of food subsidies in India unfeasible for the economy: 1) ECONOMIC DISTORTIONS: Some economists believe that subsidies cause economic distortions. This means that subsidies divert the resources from more productive to less productive uses. Public finance economist Ronald Gerriste warned that” subsidies could have externalities that we did not bargain for.” Let us take the example of India; subsidies serve as an incentive for farmers to produce food grains desired by the government (rice and Wheat) and not other goods like vegetables or fruits. This results in the less production and high prices of other goods. Thus the overall efficiency of the economy is reduced in this manner.
The Continent with the highest amount of people suffering with malnutrition, relating to undernourishment, is Africa. Ethiopia and Nigeria are both third world countries, and are greatly suffering from malnutrition. Being undernourished is when your body doesn’t receive enough nutrients. Starvation is also a form of malnutrition; starvation is the main reason for malnutrition in third world countries. Poverty is thriving this these countries, which can lead to the high rate of malnutrition.
Alterations in consumption patterns have led to an increase in the demand for fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, poultry, and fisheries. The malnutrition problem in India is more extensive than that of access to food and the malnutrition levels here are almost double of those of many African countries. The resolution of this issue requires a multi-pronged approach covering diet modification including micronutrients, women’s empowerment, education, health, safe
Market Infrastructure The inadequate infrastructure for storage, sorting, grading or post-harvest management and the reluctance of the private sector to invest in logistics or infrastructure under the current prevailing conditions are major problems faced by the food sector. The stressed infrastructure in the power and irrigation sectors and outdated marketing arrangements also seen as a result of ‘infrastructure bottleneck’ experienced in developing countries like India. The most important consequence of lack of infrastructure is wastage. Around 7% of food grains, 30% of fruits and vegetables and 10% of spices are lost before even reaching the market. This is attributed to lack of proper handling (cleaning, sorting, grading and packaging)
Agriculture is stated to be the major occupation of the rural people; downfall of agriculture and lack of production will certainly be the major cause of poverty for them. 2. Demographic factors – There have been demographic factors which are accountable for the growth of poverty in India. Rapid growth of population aggravates the poverty of the people. The growth of population exceeds the rate of growth in national income.
Reducing the incidence of hunger is essential to increase agricultural productivity and achieve higher rate of economic growth. People suffering from hunger are marginalized within the economy, contributing little to output and still less to demand. Investing in reducing hunger is a moral and economic imperative. So the goal of reducing food insecurity and rising agricultural productivity are interrelated (FAO, 2006).