Galapagos Marine Iguana

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INTRODUCTION

In nature, there are many process that related to our ecology and genetic behaviour. It is important to learn and get a better understanding about the evolution process and how an organism react towards genetic stress. Biologists constantly assign to extrinsic situation, such as food and climate changes as the only potential cause of variation. Adaptation occur through changes in allele frequencies as a result of the selection pressure exerted by the environment. (R. Bijlsma, 2005). This process is known as genotypic adaptation or evolutionary adaptation. These phenomena are important from an evolutionary perspective.
The possible occurrence of evolutionary adaptation and the rate at which it can proceed depends on the presence
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Even though marine iguanas are efficient hunters, their short, profound battle of hunting action extra firmly features the activity style of sit-and-wait hunters. The general and environmental selective stress that are rare to this species and its environment has been examined to understand why these endemic lizards have adapted unique foraging strategy and how it differs from the general pattern of foraging in lizards.
Body size is one of the most crucial characteristics of organisms because basically all other characteristics or life history traits scale with body size (Peters, 1983) (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1984) (Reiss, 1989) (Perrin, 1998).That body size is an adaptation to the specific life history of an animal (P.H Harvey, 1999). Selection stress of both natural and sexual selection as well as to conclude according to what possible mediate control the body size in a structure of island reptiles, the marine iguanas of the Galapagos archipelago (Darwin, 1883), (Carpenter,
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They possess blunt heads with tricuspid teeth that are flattened laterally, enable them to graze on marine algae (Darwin, 1839). Besides, long and sharp claws with a powerful ability to grip onto the lava (Carpenter, 1966).Their tails are flattened compared with others iguanids and they successfully adapted for efficient swimming (Tracy and Christian, 1985).Black coloration and circulatory heat shunts help to maintain preferred body temperature during foraging bouts in the cold sea water.
Genetic stress in marine iguana occurs when there is endocrine-immune interactions across species which make it difficult to discern consistent patterns. Relationship between baseline and stress –induced levels of sex and adrenal steroid hormones and standard Eco immunological metrics in both female and male Galapagos marine iguanas. A significant association between adrenal activity and immunity is found, whereby greater corticosterone responses to stress had lower basal and stress-induced immunity for example bactericidal

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