Its purpose is to guide instructors in incorporating activities and discussions that will help learners understand how they learn, their strengths and their needs, and to better understand the learning process. Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. It is the process of developing self-awareness and the ability to self-assess. It is contemplation about one’s education and learning -- past, present, and future. Since adults are largely self-determining, helping them develop metacognitive skills is an essential element in any program intended to increase their autonomy.
Question 2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is one of the motivation theories that can be applied to teaching and learning. a) With the aid of diagram, explain how Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is Organized. American physiologist studies on human needs and motivation know as Abraham Harold Maslow already establishing a theory that being focusing and describing on the stages of motivation in human growths in order to fulfill their needs. This well-known theory already being accepted all over the whole and being name as Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. This Maslow’s hierarchy of need is already being divided 5 quadrants Although Maslow has not described anything of his theory in term of pyramid shape in writing about this subject matter, it already been widely
The first theories on motivation and work motivation were developed by Maslow (1954), Herzberg (1959), and McGregor (1960). In his theory on hierarchy of needs, Maslow asserted that every human-being has a 5-level hierarchy of needs ranging from physiological, to safety and security and to self-actualization. But these 5 types of needs are not present all at once in a person. Once a lower-level need is satisfied, the individual will move up to the higher level. (Maslow 1954 and Robbins 2003).
2.6 Motivational theory 2.6.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs According to Chandler (2004, 41-43) the most widely-known theory of motivation was the one developed by Abraham Maslow in his book entitled Theory of Human Motivation typically referred to as the hierarchy of needs. Maslow constructed a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs according to Maslow, a person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied or the third until the second has been satisfied.
323-335). 2.2.4 Models of Perfectionism Up to now only one model has been introduced for reasons of perfectionism, this model is based upon parental factors from results of experiments. Flett and Hewitt (2002), for supporting their theory about the existing of three types of perfectionism (individual-based, others-based, and social-based) present the Evolutionary Model. You can see the model in the following figure. Flett and Hewitt (2002) said that there are three domains which are among the dangerous factors for the creation of perfectionism; like, Parental, Environmental, and Individual Factors.
He explicates that at some point a child cannot understand without a master explaining to him. There is a type of content that a parent and student himself cannot understand only the master. This brings up a point of the importance of teaching strategies. It is much more important that the master leads and students follow because many researches have proven that students understand the content well with the explications of the
2.4.1 Competency-based Education (CBE) Competency-based education is an approach to learning in which the components of learning are unit of measurable assessment of student achievement, which focus on training students for specific tasks. (Auerbach, 1986) specially for adults, professionals or in university education, because of the trend of gaining more in less time in this fast moving material world. The output approach or objectivist approach with an extensive interest in using competencies based learning as a unit of assessment and analysis is getting popularity as performance-based models of the human resources field in the business sector (Paulson, 2001). As for language course designing and curriculum development, competency-based learning has been called “the most important breakthrough in adult ESL” (Center for Applied Linguistics, 1983b :1). Unlike traditional programs, in which certificates and diplomas certify that the students has completed a specific number of credit hours, certificates and diplomas granted under CBE programs certify that the students can perform specified tasks.
INTRODUCTION The paper focuses upon the significance and the quality of English language learning assessment and evaluation process in the educational system. Evaluation is a wider concept than testing and measurement, and is designed to judge the worth of all the educational outcomes brought about as a result of teaching learning process. Inthis process the students come to know their own drawbacks and try to improve. Thus, it helps the teacher in diagnosing the difficulty in learning. Because in a continuous assessment of the student day-to-day progress it helps in determining the potentialities and interests of every student, on the basis of the day-to-day records of students it becomes easy to know the present status of the student
They also should be similar to real-world situations so meaning is a primary objective. Furthermore, task can be completed in class, which would be known as pedagogical tasks, or beyond the classroom, which are named target tasks. Learner-Centered Instruction is explained in terms of techniques that are applied in the classroom and focused on the students. Overall their main target is to make the student the creator of their own process. In this sense they account for student’s needs and goals, give some control to decide in certain occasions and let him innovate as much as possible in order to generate a sense of worthiness and
Instruction in most subject areas is being altered to include more practical applications of skills and to incorporate a greater focus on the understanding and combining of content and skills. Teachers are able to modify their methods of teaching when following to this way of teaching. Students are more responsible for their education and allows students to assess their own progress. Advocates of performance assessment believe these tests serve as a benchmark for educators and school officials. When students acquire the skills and knowledge, the educators are able to concentrate on teaching students this information.