The cathode material must be stable in an oxidising environment and the porous microstructure must be maintained at the high temperatures of operation. Noble metals and electronically conducting oxides are thus the ideal choices for cathode materials for SOFCs. However, the use of noble metals is not practically feasible due to their high cost and hence, electronically conducting oxides are generally used. The thermal expansion coefficient of these oxides and that of the solid electrolyte must be very similar and the cathode materials must be chemically compatible with the solid electrolyte . Perovskite-based LaMnO3 is the most commonly used cathode material for SOFCs.
This is because the steel is hard but brittle and has internal stresses. The solution to this is by tempering to increase toughness, reduce the brittleness but in turn reduces hardness. Tempering a steel heats up the steel to temperatures ranging from 200-500°C depending on the desired mechanical properties. Heating after the quenching allows the carbon to diffuse into the martensite to relieve internal stresses. The end result would be the shock absorption capability which depends on the tempering temperature (higher the temperature, higher the shock
The highly resistance properties need to be backed up by lightweight so that the vehicle can move faster. The excessive weight of a material like steel can severely affect the performance and survivability of vehicles in the field because of the increased vehicle weight and thus necessary modification to the suspension system to support the increased inertial energy.The materials also needs high strength, thus it has resistance to the ballistics and bullets. The other properties that metallic armor should have chemical resistance and corrosion resistance. It needs to have those resistance because it wear and heat resistance and thermal expansion, insulation and
The thermal post-buckling deflection was determined based on Newton–Rapson method. By embedding SMA fibers, the thermal large deflection is decreased and the critical temperature is increased. Even though by using SMA fibers, weight of plate was increased but the thermal large deflection was decreased. Lee et al.  analyzed buckling and post buckling behavior of laminated composite (carbon/epoxy) shells with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires under axial compressive forces and thermal loading for the cases of two boundary conditions clamped–clamped and simply supported–simply supported boundary
Smart materials made from nickel-titanium alloys are common and are rapidly being employed in aerospace, mechanical and biomedical engineering etc. One of the most intriguing concept of smart materials is the self-repairing effect whereby the material would detect faults/cracks and by changing own properties would act as a diagnostic tool. Smart materials have therefore been a revolutionary step in scientific advancements. The ability to respond to changes and self-adaptability provide numerous possible applications for these materials in many different
Laminated Glass (LG) comprises two layers of glass and a layer of viscous elastic polymer Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) film. Two layers of glass and PVB in between are put together under heat and pressure to make LG. Interlayer improves mechanical properties such as impact resistance, tensile strength and fracture toughness of the laminated glass. It also increases the area of impact which increases the impact resistance as a result. Interlayer in between keeps together broken pieces that can possibly cause dangerous incidents or accidents.
Class I liquids are low density and provide weight savings advantages versus class II. II. Class II liquids are standard density. o Type V liquids are being developed in regards to industry needs for a more thermally firm liquid at higher operating temperatures. o Compared to type IV liquids, type V liquids will be more resistant to hydrolytic and oxidation degradation at high temperature.
Introduction A number of joining processes exist in the industry today that vary from bolting and riveting to welding, adhesive bonding and so on [TAP07]. Out of all these joining processes, bonding is by far the most universal joining technique. Bonding is the joining of similar or dissimilar material surfaces using a substance which adheres to the two material surfaces that need to be joined. Adhesive bonding technology is a widely established method for joining metals, ceramics, plastics, composites and other substrates as well. It offers great flexibility for design and can be integrated easily for mass production applications.
In the development of new technologies for the aerospace, medical and automotive industries, these junctures are of high importance, because they allows the systems, components manufactured in mild steel and aluminum to be structurally united. Even the fusion welding processes by presenting a heat affected zone (HAZ) well reduced. Friction Welding (FW) is classified by the American welding society (AWS) as a solid state joining process in which bonding is produced at temperatures lower than the melting point of the base materials. Fuji A et al.  studied mechanical properties of titanium - 5083 aluminum alloy friction joints.
Polyamides constantly attract broader interest because of their unique mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties stated by Hatke et al (1991) , Spiliopoulos and Mikroyannidis (1998), Liaw et al (2003). Polyamide is well known for its excellent mechanical properties stated by Liu et al (2006). The two major types of polyamides are polyamide 6 and polyamide 66. PA 6 is prepared by the polymerization of caprolactam. Polyamides do reveal a tendency to creep under applied load.