The extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils is critically dependent upon three factors: a) the creation of optimal environmental conditions to stimulate biodegradative activity, b) the predominant Petroleum hydrocarbon types in the contaminated matrix and c) the bioavailability of the contaminants to microorganisms. The Petroleum hydrocarbon degradation is also affected by the molecular composition of the hydro carbons. Microorganisms with the ability to degrade crude oil are ubiquitously distributed in soil and mine environments. Dehydrogenase enzyme involves in this to remove the oxidative substrate, and has been found in correlation with the oxygen uptake and organic substrate removal rates in aerobic
Here the carboxyl group is removed from the pyruvate as a molecule of C02 and the remaining two carbons are used to become the acetyl group in the Acetyl-CoA. Therefore pyruvate C3 is converted to acetate c2. In this reaction Coenzyme A is needed. NADH is also created in this reaction. The NADH gives a hydride ion to the respiratory chain.
This drives the electrolysis of the H2O and/or CO2, splitting these oxides by removal of an oxygen atom, which is transported as an oxide ion across the electrolyte to the other electrode where the oxide ions recombine to produce gaseous oxygen. Fuels such as H2 and CO are thus produced, which can be reformed into other fuels such as methane or liquid hydrocarbons.
Common examples of such preparation are oxidation of primary alcohol and aldehydes accompanied by the hydrolysis of Nitriles compounds. The following are the chemical equations of such reaction taken place. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols RCH_2OH + 2[O] RCOOH + H_2 O Oxidation of Aldehydes KMnO_4/"H" _"2" 〖"SO" 〗_"4" RCHO + [O] RCOOH
Methane sources and sinks: “Although most sources and sinks of methane have been identified, their relative contributions to atmospheric methane levels are highly uncertain” (Kirschke et al., 2013). Methane emissions can be divided into three different groups according to Kirschke et al: biogenic, thermogenic and pyrogenic. - Biogenic sources: they include microorganisms which generate methane as a metabolic product, rice paddies, natural wetlands, oxygen-poor reservoirs, rumiants, termites, etc. - Thermogenic sources: they contain methane emitted through the use of fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas) and vented through natural seeps and volcanic activity. - Pirogenic sources: they are originated by partial combustion of fossil fuels and biomass.
In dark reaction, carbon dioxide is reduced to sugar. It occurs in stroma of chloroplast. It is actually light dependent because carbon dioxide assimilation takes place by use of NADPH as a reductant and ATP as energy source that are prepared during light reaction. Sugars or starch (end products) are prepared from some PGA by reversed sequence of EMP pathway of glycolysis and remaining PGA is used to regenerate RUBP. So this is a regular cyclic reaction that is called Kelvin Cycle.
In this tower, carbon dioxide and hydrogen disulfide are engrossed with the chemical reaction into the amine haze. The departure amine solution, loaded CO2 and H2S, is named rich amine. This stream is rushed, filtered, and then fed to the top of a stripper to recuperate the amine, and acid gases (CO2 and H2S) are stripped and exit at the top of the tower. The refluxed water helps in watercourse stripping the rich amine solution. The generated amine or lean amine is recycled back to the top of the absorption
A two-step method that is divided into oil extraction and oil trans esterification and single step in situ trans esterification of algal oils to biodiesel. Three types of conversion methods prevail: chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic. SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL: Algal oils and their trans esterification to fatty acid methyl