Migration Movement Research Paper

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The migration movement in new living environment can be, according to Bade (2005), understood as a social and culture-historical process. People with different historical, sociocultural and individual backgrounds react differently to economic and ecological, social and cultural, religious, ethnical and political parameter. Therefore, Efionayi-Mäders (2001) for instance has the opinion, migration cannot be administratively or legally defined (Efionayi-Mäder et al. 2001). Different theories on the process of migration can be found in the literature. According to Bhugra (2001) for example, the process of migration can be divided in broadly three stages with the first stage being the pre-migration which involves the decision and preparation to…show more content…
These are all people who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country"(UNHCR, 1967, Art.1 para. A Z 2). In this context, literature distinguishes between quota refugees and spontaneous refugees. Firstly mentioned are people who come, in the course of a humanitarian relief operation, in bigger groups to another country. Spontaneous refugees on the other hand make their way to Europe out of their own initiative to seek asylum in a European country (UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)…show more content…
The main reason why these people leave their home countries is poverty and poor income opportunities. The term is mainly used to distinguish between refugees fleeing from persecution and people leaving because of economic reasons. Economic migrants usually enter a country without legal permission and/or by using asylum procedures without bona fide cause. According to the Geneva Convention on Refugees social grievances are no criteria to be accepted as a refugee. “The crux of the matter is that European states claim that the vast majority of those seeking asylum today are in fact not persecuted refugees but are opportunistic immigrants who abuse the asylum process with illegitimate claims.”(Steiner, Gibney, & Loescher, 2003, p. 181) Irregular migrants, commonly known under undocumented or illegal migrants, are people who enter a country unauthorized, meaning without the necessary documents and permits needed defined by immigration regulations of the receiving country. It also includes migrants who enter the host country lawfully but overstayed their visa without applying for asylum and therefore lack a legal status. Usually, irregular migrants are moving from low-income countries to high-income countries to seek employment. (Castles

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