I would have always considered childhood throughout the centuries to be similar: a period of innocence, play and freedom. I imagined that children were treated like children and were protected. However, this was not always the case. Within a social constructionist framework, there is not a single absolute conception of childhood, but a multiple, relative and changeable one that varies between cultures and societies (The disablement and enablement of childhood Chi-Ming Lam a a Department of International Education and Lifelong Learning, Hong Kong Institute of Education, New Territories, Hong Kong). If we look into the past historical views of childhood on a basis of the work from Philippe Ariès (1962) in “Centuries of Childhood”, childhood as a distinct social category was absent.
Two broad theoretical positions have emerged on this question. One argues that childhood is a characteristic of human evolution designed to ensure the survival and development of the species. The other suggests that the state of childhood or how childhood is viewed is significant in itself as an indicator of the evolution or development of societies and cultures toward notions of civility or modernity. The former, which encompasses the biosocial and evolutionary approaches, (Panter-Brick, 1998) argues that childhood, as a stage of growth and development, has evolved in human society to provide the conditions for optimizing the prospects of maturity. In particular, this perspective has suggested that the distinctively rapid growth of the brain and the immaturity of dentition and digestive tracts characteristic of the early stages of human life have evolved over time to sustain human society.
Childhood is a concept that is affected by social context and also by history. Here in the West childhood was not always considered to be a fundamental developmental phase in life with children in Victorian times working from as early as the age of four. The Industrial Revolution did highlight the poor treatment of children and bring to the forefront the morality of allowing children to work such long hours and subsequently depriving them of an education. This essay will focus on the work of Jean Piaget and Sigmund Freud outlining the contributions of both theorists to the child development debate and to the field of Play Therapy. Both theorists have contributed to the field of play therapy.
In Colin Heywood’s article “Child Rearing and Childhood: Changing Conceptions of Childhood” (2001), Heywood explains how childhood was not an idea that existed in medieval society because of the environment that didn’t allow time for childhood. Children were “largely absent from literary works” (Heywood). Heywood went
According to (King, 2008), child development involves in two theories which is nature and nurture. “The term nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance. The term nurture refers to an organism’s environmental experiences”. The collaboration of nature and nurture, heredity and environment, influences every aspect of mind and behavior in child
Throughout this whole semester there has been many important concepts about the development of life and how we can analyze the growth of one’s mind after birth. Psychologists make these observations closely in order to have a better understanding of how individual’s mindsets process information. In the textbook “Life-Span Development, 15th Edition” by John W. Santrock, he elaborates on how the brain works in different stages of life. For each stage of life there are different components to how the brain and the human body function properly. In chapter five of the book it talks about the cognitive development in infancy and how through this stage infants are starting to explore.
A child’s development is based on their environment, ones’ cultures and many other factors but, most importantly it is their connection with their caregivers because a parental love is what will help them grow into the person they are to be. In the film Babies, a 2010 French document showed us four newborns through their first year after birth. Since the babies are from different cultures and are from around the world, the film shows how they were raised, the community they lived in and their everyday lives. Two specific babies that were raised completely different would be Marti who is from Tokyo, Japan and Bayar from Bayanchandmani, Mongolia. Mari lives in an urban area and Bayar lives in a rural area.
Introduction From the mid to late 20th Century there has been a visible and remarkable changes in family structures and dynamics (Cliquet, 2003). Most people experience society through their own early family experiences, and they grow up thinking that their family is the same as everyone else’s (Saggers and Sims, 2005). However, when entering school, the understanding and ideals of family structure changes realities when encountering; single-parent households, step- and blended families, extended families, same-sex families, childless households, parentless households and even the single person household where the strongest bonds are not with biological relations, but with intimate friendships (Saggers and Sims, 2005). The aim of this essay is to discuss how contemporary family and household structures have become more diverse. Looking at what was previously the ideal family structure and dynamics to what is understood today, what changes are there in modern families compared to previously accepted, and what are the causes of these changes.
Childhood is best remembered as the days when people could live life without a care in the world. Since people were so young, they did not understand much of the world, but only what their parents taught them. However, as time goes on the essence of childhood changes as well. Some people claim that modern culture is a positive influence on kids. They claim that pop culture allows kids to be more well-rounded.
Children were soon believed to have a unique outlook on the world because they had not yet been socialised and forced to interpret things in the hegemonic way most adults did. This drastic change in the perception of children as separate from adults influenced such poets as William Blake to use children and the idea of childhood as the subject of their writing in an attempt to understand the innocence that they seemed to hold. In this essay I will aim to examine the centrality of the child in romantic poetry by looking at such poems as Infant Joy, Infant Sorrow and The Chimney Sweeper from both Songs of Innocence and Songs of Innocence and Experience by William Blake. Published in 1789 Songs of Innocence took the purity of children and the joys that