The concrete should be used as efficient as possible. Nowadays researches efforts are continuously looking for new, better and efficient construction method. Various theories related to the analysis of structural elements reduced the self-weight of element for a given load- carrying capacity. Structural material optimization can reduce the dead load which reduce the contribution of seismic effect in high rise structures and also very good at the vibration dampers and heat isolation. According to the natural behaviour of the concrete, it is strong in compression and weak in tension.
The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure. Lead Rubber Bearings Lead Rubber Bearing (LRB) are elastomeric bearings that contain one or more lead plugs inserted into their preformed holes. The lead provides significant stiffness under service loads and low lateral loads as compare to the elastomeric bearings. During high lateral loads, the load yields and the lateral stiffness of the LRB is significantly reduced. This increases the duration of the period of the structure and thereby serves as the purpose of base isolation system.
Carbon fiber reinforcement: In certain cases, carbon fiber reinforcement might be a viable alternative to a standard steel wall brace. A newer development in foundation and crack repair, carbon fiber products are lightweight and sleek while still being able to bear large weight loads. A foundation repair pro will use an epoxy adhesive to bond the carbon fiber panels to damaged areas. What foundation repair strategy is right for your specific needs? That can only be determined after a thorough examination of the problem by an experienced and knowledgeable professional.
Covering the concreted area to avoid excess evaporation or proper curing can help reduce this crack formation. The surface at which the concrete is supposed to be placed should be properly damped so that excess water is removed. Use of fibers or silica fumes can also help to reduce the crack formation. 5. Plastic Shrinkage in Shape of
The scarcity of fine aggregate for the production of mortar and concrete, as partial replacement of sand by Copper Slag have been identified. Several researchers have investigated the use of copper slag in the production of cement, mortar and concrete as raw materials for clinker, cement replacement, coarse and fine aggregates. This paper reports on some experimental investigations on the influence of partial replacement of sand by copper slag on the mechanical properties of concrete. M30 grade concrete was designed using copper slag, partially replacing the fine aggregate The fine aggregate was replaced by copper slag at various percentages ranging from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The mechanical properties of concrete determined in the laboratory include compression strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural tensile strength.
Cooling process: By cooling down the material through some chemical reactions in which energy absorbing (endothermic) processes triggered by additives and/or the chemical release of water cool the substrate to a temperature below that required for sustaining the combustion process, e.g. magnesium hydroxide [26,13,20]. Coating process: By forming a protective layer or coating that prevents or shields the underlying combustible layer of material with a solid or gaseous protective layer from heat and oxygen necessary for the combustion process, e.g. phosphorous and boron compounds [26,13,20]. Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g.
It is used for two main intention; as a new construction wearing course and as a precautionary maintenance for an existing pavement. BST, or chip seal, comprising of a flake of asphalt binder that is superimposed by a flake of aggregate embedded in the binder that furnishes, into other things, conservancy to the existing stratum flake from tire blight and a skid resistance surface texture for vehicles. Sprayed seals is a low cost alternative compared to other pavement surfaces but the roadway has to be resurfaced more frequently because a severely distressed underlying stratum will minimize the attribute of the chip seal and shorten its service life. Chip seals, also called "stone-and-oil" or "sprayed seals" are bituminous stratum remedy containing of single-size aggregate dilation on a road just after sprinkle with asphalt emulsion. They are normally used to clog subgrade decay by sealing small rift in the stratum, thus stopping infraction of water, and also to reforming roadway skid counteraction and riding quality.
For this the mold should be made from high strength preferably of hardened steel. Secondly, for better mechanical properties it is advised that the molded items be annealed. Thirdly, mold release agents if required should only be made from fluorine based compounds to avoid stress cracks. Applications Poly (ether sulphone) has a variety of applications in a vast array of fields. The most successful applications are mentioned below.
Soil – Lime Reactions The addition of lime to a soil initiates a two stage reaction. Short-term reactions show their effect right after the addition of lime, while long term reactions are accompanied by a period of time. The short-term effect of the addition of lime to a clay soil is to cause flocculation and agglomeration of the clay particles, as explained in Section 3.1 on fly ash stabilization, for cation exchange takes place between the metallic ions of the clay particles and the
Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete with Pozzolan as Cement Replacement Material Introduction: Roller compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete_ well graded aggregates, cementitious materials, and water_ but different mixture proportions. The largest difference between RCC mixtures and conventional concrete mixtures is that RCC has a higher percentage of fine aggregates, which allows for tight packing and consolidation . RCC may be considered for applications where no-slump concrete can be transported, placed, and compacted