However, it is mainly found in the tropical regions. The wide-spread of Zika virus was accompanied by dangerous syndromes such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barre. The symptoms of Zika virus are considered to be mild, yet uncomfortably harmful. There is no vaccine for Zika virus, but there are precautions one must take
birds, shrews, hedgehogs and predatory ground beetles. There is also a biological control in the form of a nematode available. There is also a chemical available called “chlorpyferous” which gives protection against the grubs. 2. Honey Fungus: You can use resistant varieties, avoid water logging, shading, drought areas, protect roots from damage, avoid planting at an infected site, infected roots and stumps should be removed.
The field observations followed by toxicity studies against different insecticides suggest that pest has developed resistance against many insecticides. Recent line of work at global level suggest that gut microbes play an important role that manipulate many physiological functions of the insects, including host-insect morphogenesis, food digestion, nutrition, antifungal toxin production, pheromone production, regulation of pH, synthesis of vitamins, temperature tolerance, resistance against parasitoid development and detoxification of noxious compounds. Our study was pointed towards quantification of microbial diversity present in the alimentary canals and their possible role in insecticide degradation. As evidence by the above role played by microflora in insecticide resistance, present work was carried out to characterize the diversity of culturable microflora and determine their role as endosymbionts in leafhopper A. biguttula biguttula in pesticide degradation, thus imparting insecticide resistance. Identifying the interactions between the insects and their gut bacteria may provide the way for novel approaches for insect control.
The main route of infection is via mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a human, it takes blood. Simultaneously, it injects a malicious form of the parasite through its saliva. The parasite, at that stage, is known as a sporozoite. This sporozoite then moves via the blood stream to the liver, where it infects a hepatic cell.
These mosquitoes live in places that have tropical or mild climates. The virus also can spread through unprotected sex. Due to concerns that it also can be passed through blood transfusions or organ transplants, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now recommends screening all blood donors in the United States for Zika virus. Because the Zika virus can pass from an infected mom-to-be to her unborn baby, it's important to take precautions if you're pregnant or think you might become pregnant. If you live in an area with Zika outbreaks, do your best to prevent mosquito bites, use condoms to prevent getting Zika through sex, and talk to your doctor.
The impact of invasive alien species Title: The Asian tiger mosquito’s effect on both the environment and human health The purpose of this research is to better understand invasive alien species, the main reason beyond their successful invasion in a non-native environment and also investigate their impact on the ecosystem. This research will have a close focus on the Asian tiger mosquito understand factors that have contributed to their spread globally and how they are affecting both the environment and human health. Alien species are plants, animals, pathogens and others organisms that are living outside their native distributional range. The movement of these species is always the results of a human activity either deliberately or accidentally.
Introduction - Sodium fluoroacetate, commonly knows as 1080, is a manufactured type of poison which is primarily used as a toxic bait product to kill off pests like Possums, Rats and Stoats in New Zealand . According to the Department of Conservation of New Zealand , 1080 is used, because the main threat for New Zealand’s native plants and animals comes from creatures like possums rats and stoats. 1080 is considered a controversial socioscientific issue because its use presents both biological and social implications. This means that the utilization of 1080 poison not only deals with scientific ideas, but it also deals with ethical, societal and environmental considerations. Biological Ideas - A possum is a small animal which typically weighs around 1.4 - 6.4 kilograms  .
Its life cycle is complex, involving invasive, trophic and replicative forms in the human host and female Anopheles mosquito. The asexual stages are in the human host while the sexual occur in the mosquito midgut. Figure 1 : Plasmodium falciparum life cycle in female anopheline mosquito and human host depicting the different stages and their duration. Available at
The mosquito that transmits dengue is the Aedes mosquito (World Health Organization, 2013). Allergy, is a misguided reaction to foreign substances by the immune system, the body system of defense against foreign invaders, particularly pathogens (the agents of infection). The allergic reaction is misguided in that these foreign materials are usually harmless (Allergy, 2016). Rubeola, also known as measles, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Measles is a very infectious disease that can be passed on another individual through contact with contaminated saliva and mucus.
The principal vector mosquito for the dengue virus is the A.aegypti. According to WHO (1997) A.aegypti is the most important epidemic vector for dengue diseases, but other species such as A.albopictus, A.polynesiensis, and several species of the A.scutellaris complex, and A. (Finlaya) niveus (WHO, 1999) have also been incriminated as secondary vectors. All except Ae.aegypti have their own restricted geographical distribution and, they have been identified as a host for the dengue virus, although the most efficient epidemic vector for dengue is still the A. aegypti. A study by Varma (1989), noted that the A.aegypti and A.albopictus are the principal vectors Of the dengue virus in rural and urban areas in Malaysia, but not in the deep jungle.