Essay On Mutation In Dna

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HOW DNA CAN BE MUTATED AND WHAT ARE THE SYSTEMS THAT CAN REPAIR BACK THE MUTATED DNA
DNA mutation. Mutation are permanent heritable alteration in the base of sequence of DNA. Mutation occurs either because of spontaneous errors in DNA replication or in a meiotic recombination of as a consequence of the damaging effects of physical or chemical agents on the DNA.There are few concept in order to understanding mutation in DNA. It is known that DNA is a chemical compounds which the components are in an unique structures. The DNA molecules however can be modified, resulting in mutation. One path for the DNA to be mutated is by transition or by transversion. In transition, purine will be changed to another purine nucleotide, which is (A→G) and the other way around resulting to a mutation. For transversion, it refers to the substitution of purine to pyrimidine or
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DNA also can directly repaired damaged bases. A repair enzyme recognizes incorrect structure in the DNA and directly converts it to a correct structure.
Base exision repair involves a category of enzymes known as DNA-N-glycosylacases. The enzymes identify the damaged base and cleave the bond between it and the sugar in the DNA. Then it will remove one base, excises several around it and then replaces it with several new bases using DNA polymerase adding to 3’ ends and then closing it with ligase attached to 5’ end. Another type of DNA repair is nucleotide excision repair. (NER). NER will nicks DNA around damaged base and removes the region. Then it will fills it with Pol on 3’ends and attached 5’ end with

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