Neurons transmit information to each other and to muscles, organs and glands. The nerve impulse is sent from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another neuron. The neuromuscular junction as labeled in Part A of this assignment, shows that there is a space between the axon of a neuron and the motor plate of the muscle cell. The two parts do not actually touch each other. When the football player’s brain sends a message to move during the game, the nerve impulse is sent from neuron to muscle cell. The space (synapse) between the axon of a motor neuron and a muscle cell is called a neuromuscular junction. The axon of the motor neuron contains synaptic vesicles which contains thousands of molecules of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This acetylcholine is released into the space between the axon and the muscle cell. The muscle cell membrane has receptors to accept or to bond with the acetylcholine. This region is called the motor end plate. When the acetylcholine bonds with the protein receptors in the motor end plate, sodium and potassium gates in the region open at the same time
Muscular pain muscle spasms, restless leg syndrome, pins and needles, buzzing, numbness, electrifying pain, tearing pain, poking pain, hammering, biting,
It is almost impossible to trace the origin of the Bouvier des Flandres. During the last decade of the nineteenth century a program of selective breeding of the dog’s native to Belgium was begun under the guidance of Professor Adolph Reul, a veterinary surgeon and author of “Les Races de Chiens” (1894). The Bouvier is mentioned, “for the most part, a shepherd dog or a dog that resembles him in general make-up but who is bigger, fiercer, more aggressive and has a bolder look.” The breed almost disappeared during World War I but was reestablished due to the efforts of Captain Barbry and his dog Ch. Nic de Sottegem. Breeding emphasis has always been placed on performance in Europe. The breed has a
Sensory nerves transmit sensations such as touch and pain to the spinal cord and from there to the brain,
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body. It occurs when communication between nerve cells and muscles becomes impaired. This impairment prevents crucial muscle contractions from occurring, resulting in muscle weakness. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a neurotransmitter substance called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine travels from the neuromuscular junction and binds to acetylcholine receptors which are activated and generate a muscle contraction. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the muscle contraction
The disease Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy (1) in fact 3 out of every 10,000 births will result in a male born with this disorder (2). DMD is a recessive sex linked disorder that can only be passed down to the child if his mother is the carrier (2, 3). Symptoms for DMD are confinement to a wheel chair by the age of 11at the latest and are expected to die in their twenties to forties (2, 4). This is because DMD causes progressive muscle weakness and will reduce muscle tone throughout the body. Muscle weakness will usually begin its onset by the age of three (4). Other symptoms for DMD include pseudohypertrophy (the growth of an organ or a part due to an increase in the amount of other tissue that is fatty
Tay-Sachs is a rare, inherited, metabolic disease that is caused by a defective gene on chromosome 15. This defect causes the body to not make a protein called hexosaminidase which leads to chemicals building up. These chemicals destroy the nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Tay-Sachs is also called GM2 gangliosidosis, HexA deficiency, Hexosaminidase A deficiency, and Hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency. Tay-Sachs is most common in infants and children. It is also typically found in people with certain ancestry such as people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage and people of Cajun heritage. Some people may have the genetic mutation but not get the disease.
The inability to purse the lips and show the teeth of the affected side is due to paralysis of the orbicularis oris facial muscle, which is innervated by the facial nerve (N VII).
This injury is the stretching of ulnar nerve that runs through cubital tunnel, which is is the largest unprotected nerve on the body. The nerve can tear when the ulnar nerve is compressed. It is between the medial epicondyle and olecranon, and runs along the ulnar bone. For the muscles, the cubital tunnel is adjacent to to triceps and continues down the forearm between the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.It can be either chronic or acute, but it typically acute. It is near the medial head of the tricep and the arcuate ligament. Also, the arcade of struthers, medial intermuscular septum, and the deep flexor aponeurosis are affected.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a degenerative neuromuscular disorder that affects the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain. Due to degeneration or destruction of the motor neurons, muscles throughout the body begin to become weak and waste away to the point that an individual has no muscle movement. In most cases, due to having muscle strength, a patient with ALS will succumb to their disease because of respiratory failure or dehydration and malnutrition. It is a progressive disease with a prognosis of 3 to 5 years after initial diagnosis. There is no cure for the disease as of now. This paper will discuss a more in depth look into the symptoms, diagnosis process, treatment options, medications, prognosis, and ongoing research.
The use of narcotics in America is on a steady rise, Opioids such as Heroin being the deadliest. It’s categorized as a “Schedule 1,” meaning a high potential for abuse, along with severe psychological and physical dependence.
In reference to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, “Krabbe Disease is a rare, inherited degenerative disease” (NINDS.nih.gov). It is diagnosed when a presence of globoid cells is found. Those are cells with more than one nucleus. A nucleus acts as the brain of the cell where all the action happens. This disease breaks down the coating of nerve fibers or axons, those are called Myelin Sheath. This disease also breaks down brain cells, which are imperative for everyday functioning and intelligence. Symptoms of this disease include, developmental mental delay, seizures, stiff limbs, Optic atrophy: wasting of a muscle of the eye, resulting in vision difficulties, deafness, irritability, spasms, and ataxia which is the
Unfortunately, virtually no one is immune to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. It can occur in anyone who regularly uses their hands to perform repetitive tasks such as typing, playing sport, or doing needlework. Again, basically anyone can be affected, especially if you don’t take good care of your body and perform the necessary
Do you have anxiety? If so do you know the effective treatment? The Psychologists at the American Psychological Association in Washington D.C. have recently published an online article called Anxiety Disorders and effective Treatment, which can be found at http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/anxiety-treatment.aspx. This Article focuses on the types of anxieties that there are and there treatments. The anxieties they focus on are General Anxiety, Panic Disorder, Phobias, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder.