Stress is the psychological either strain or distress resulting from exposure to unusual or demanding situations, known as stressors. Meanwhile, job stress is the response to organizational stressors in the workplace environment that pose as a perceived threat to an individual’s well-being or safety. Individual level factors have also been implicated in stress outcomes, both as contributing factors as well as moderators of stress (Finney, et.al, 2013). Job stress is a common occurrence among various professions worldwide, is regarded as a major occupational health problem for health care professionals especially teacher. Job stress has been reported to affect job performance among teacher as they might become less competitive and low commitment.
F. Skinner (1938), negative reinforcement is a response or behavior strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative event or outcome. One misconception that people and parents often make are the resemblance of negative reinforcement towards punishment. Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior displayed or exhibited.Reinforcement deals with feedback, whether positive or negative, and also discusses the behavior modification that may happen when put into certain situations. When concerning negative reinforcement, we are referring towards the strengthening of a behavior by reducing a negative outcome or an event. Yet, not all forms of negative reinforcement is a double-edged sword, some may even be fruitful, as some studies realize that negative reinforcement and punishment plays a big role in developing the healthy brain and its growth.
(David, 1998) contributed “it can also be labeled as the destructive substantial and expressive responses that arise when the necessities of the job do not match the capacities, funds, or needs of the workers. Job stress can direct to poor health and even hurt”. Elevated level of stress existed with no administrative apprehension for explanation therefore lowering the employee routine, staking organizational standing and hammering of skillful staff, these situations label for instantaneous apprehension from organization management for employing effective trauma management practices to amplify employee contentment and generally employee performance (Imtiaz & Ahmad, 2009). Work stress can come from a selection of sources and influence people
Work stress or occupational stress can be defined as harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the occupation do not match with the capabilities, resources or needs of the worker (NIOSH, 1999). Additionally, it has also been defined as the non-specific negative response of the body in order to meet up with exceeding demands at the work place(Sciences & Terengganu, 2011). Cooper described stressors in the work place in six elementary groups, namely; factors intrinsic to work role, organizational roles, work relationships, career development, organizational factors and home-work interface (Williams & Cooper, 1998). Work stress has been conceptualized with many models. The most widely cited one is Karasek’s job
The volatile economic situation and tougher company expectations have lead to the downsizing, merging, acquisition, and other types of structural change of numerous organizations. All of which may lead to feelings of job insecurity about an employee’s job continuation. (Sverke, Hellgren, & Naswall, 2002 ). With this in mind, researches on job insecurity and its negative consequences have rapidly increased since job insecurity has been proven to have negative outcomes not just for individuals but also towards the organization (Cheng & Chan, 2008). In addition, research on job insecurity have been more significant because of its growing relevance in the workplace (Silla, Gracia, Mañas, & Peiró, 2010).
Stress is the response of people to the excessive pressure or demands placed on them. Overload, control, work relationships, job security and work-life balance are a few causes that lead to employees stress. Overload is one of the causes of stress, it is extending to which individuals feel that the demands of their workload and the associated time pressures are a source of pressure. For example, they have to chase deadline for all tasks given at the end of the week which they got that at the beginning of the week. It gives a lot of pressures for them because they have to finish all the works given only for a week.
Negative reinforcement typically are characterized by the removal of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired behaviour. A response is strengthened as something considered negative is removed. The goal in both of these cases of reinforcement is for the behaviour to increase. Punishment, in contrast, is when the increase of something undesirable attempts to cause a decrease in the behaviour that follows. Positive punishment is when unfavourable events or outcomes are given in order to weaken the response that follows.
Stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. In everyday life some stress may be desired, beneficial and even healthy. Excessive amount of stress to which we called negative stress is really harmful that not only leads toward mental harm but also bodily harm and it can increase the risk of strokes, heart attacks, and mental disorders such as depression. Stress can be external and related to the environment, but may also be created by internal perceptions that cause an individual to experience anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful.that all come under negative stress. while positive stress is good to take because it always give you some benefit and leads
It is a fact well known that if a person is satisfied at work this can reduce stress levels and increase motivation and their general disposition. As previously stated job satisfaction can affect a person's mood and emotional state. Managers can employ some type of benefit for their employees such as, such as a company gym, meditation classes, or company retreats. Another recommendation is doing a stress audit. As clearly outlined above stress affects our emotions and moods by doing a stress audit managers can out what areas of work are stressful – is it excessive workload, non-consultative management styles, role conflict or too high expectations and thus work to improve their employee’s emotions and moods.
For the strain as removal or expected removal of positively valued stimuli, it could lead to delinquency. Possible examples might be losing a close friend at work hence lessen the emotional support received at company, or as a mean to maintaining the job status as they already invested so much in the career. Hence, the fear of falling is actually common in workplace. Thirdly, the strain as confronting or expecting to confront negative stimuli means that people are experiencing negative life events. Possible situations would be sexual or verbal abuse at work.