They are 1. Austenitic stainless steel – austenite iron structure is stabilized when nickel is added with it. At low temperature such steel almost be low brittle and non magnetic due to this crystal structure. In stainless steel composition sufficient quantities of manganese has been added to preserves the austenitic structure in steel same as like nickel but cost is low. 2.
Small amount of impurities can make iron much stronger than its pure form. If aluminum powder is mixed with iron oxide compounds then thermite reaction can be made which is use for different purposes like welding, purification and others. IRON ALLOYS: Different type of alloys containing iron is present. Some important alloy containing iron is carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, cast iron etc. CARBON STEELS: They are the steel containing iron and carbon.
When the iron is melted the graphite separates from the molten iron just as it happens to do during the production of grey cast iron. The only significant difference from grey cast iron is that due to some impurities added in spheroidal cast iron melt, the graphite forms as spheres or spheroids. On the other hand, in grey cast iron the graphite forms in flakes as it can be noted from the microstructures in figures 1 and 2. Spheroidal cast iron is known for its strength and hardness. It contains 3-4%.
Review article Joseph eiffe, JS, Chemistry Title: Developments in Metal Organic Frameworks for utilization in Catalysis. Abstract: Metal organic frameworks (MOF’s) are crystalline materials comprised of metal centres co-ordinately connected to each other by poly dentate ligands. With the recent increase in research into MOF’s the interesting properties of these materials become apparent. Most notable of these properties are the very high specific surface area and very high porosity. These two properties make MOF’s interesting materials for catalysis.
However, this problem can be rectified via the template effect. It is mainly first row transition metals (Nickel(II) in this experiment) that acts as the metal centre (or as a template, if you will) in macrocyclic synthesis. In order for a templated reaction to occur, the synthetic macrocycles are prepared in the presence of these metal ions.  The metal improves the yield of the macrocyclic ligand by improving the linking process which results in the ligand. The practice of using metal template reactions to obtain a
2. Oxidation of alkenes and their derivatives in aqueous media The oxidation of carbon–carbon double bonds by permanganate ion is an important and well-known reaction in organic chemistry, in a mechanistic as well as a synthetic prospective. Under alkaline conditions, olefins are converted into the corresponding diols in good yield,3,4 while in neutral or slightly basic solutions a-hydroxy ketones are produced.4,5 These reactions are always accompanied by a certain amount of C–C bond cleavage6 and, under acidic conditions, the cleavage products predominate.7,8 Aqueous potassium permanganate was used originally for
Under the influence of oxygen from air or water, the chromium rapidly forms a very thin, chromium (III) rich oxide film on the surface of the steel.This layer very effectively separates the material from the surroundings.It is adherent, coherent and insoluble under normal conditions. Increasing the chromium content, from the minimum of 10.5% necessary for "stainless steel", to 17 to 20%, greatly increases the stability of the corrosion resistance film. . Stainless steels may contain up to 38% nickel as another major alloying element.The properties of stainless steels can be adjusted with several alloying elements in addition to chromium and nickel.These
Bleach, with a pH level of 12, had very little effect on the metal screw, causing only dark brown particles to form on the surface of the metal. As per my prediction, the nitric acid caused more corrosion than the bleach. Meanwhile, the distilled water caused no corrosion within a day. However, since one of them is a strong acid and the other a strong base, I assumed that it would have given me the same results due to equal strength. After further research, I realised that “a higher pH means there are fewer free hydrogen ions” (Akinpelumi, 2012) My main research topic was Chemistry and the subtopic is pH levels.
This material offers more formability to produce parts with a moderate depth of draw . At first, the sheet metal of 1mm thickness is cut into the dimension 100x100 mm and then made as circular of diameter 90 mm as shown in figure. Fig. sheet metal for deep drawing 2.1 Deep drawing die The radius of the draw die should permit full freedom of metal flow as it passes over the radius. The draw ring causes the metal to begin flowing plastically and compressing the outer portion of the blank.
Although electrical conductivity is an important factor in this type of machining, some techniques can be used to increase the efficiency in machining of low electrical conductive materials. The Spark Theory on a wire EDM is basically the same as that of the vertical EDM process. Many sparks can be observed at one time. This is because actual discharges can occur more than one hundred thousand times per second. The heat of each electrical spark, estimated at around 15,000° to 21,000° Fahrenheit.