They receive signals in order to be activated. One of these signals is a cytokine known as interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secreted mainly by T helper cells. When LDL is deposited, macrophages are activated and the number of MHC class II molecules displayed on their surfaces is increased. When they engulf the LDL, it is broken down and presented to the T helper cells along with the MHC class II molecules for destruction and they are now seen as antigen presenting
A synapse consists of 2 parts: the axon terminals or axonal boutons of the presynaptic neuron or “sending” cell and the axon endings of the “receiving” cell, the postsynaptic neuron. Both parts are divided by the synaptic cleft. Unlike the axon itself, the presynaptic neuron does not possess Na/K channels. Instead, it is equipped with voltage-gated calcium channels and small vesicles that contain a neurotransmitter. The membrane of the postsynaptic neuron contains receptors that enable the neurotransmitter to dock (lock & key principle).
Moreover, SCC1 can also be replaced by REC8 (Revenkova and Jessberger, 2006). The Rad21-like protein (Rad21L) is a paralogue of the mammalian meiosis-specific SSC1/REC8 (Gutiérrez-Caballero et al., 2011). Uhlmann et al. (2011), reported three distinct classes of meiotic cohesin complexes. The first one has REC8 in the protein complex, while the second and third groups have Rad21L and Rad21Scc1 resectively (Uhlmann, 2011).
Transfection: One of the methods of gene transfer where the genetic material is deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene. This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the cell to receive the foreign genetic material. Transfection can be carried out using calcium phosphate (i.e. tricalcium phosphate), by electroporation, by cell squeezing or by mixing a cationic lipid with the material to produce liposomes which fuse with the cell membrane and deposit their cargo inside. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed.
The first step in the journey of muscle movement, is the motor neuron. The motor neuron provides Acetylcholine (ACh) which is crucial in muscle movement. Acetylcholine (ACh) is released from the synaptic terminals of the motor neuron. The ACh then travels across the synaptic cleft by way of diffusion. From the synaptic cleft, the ACh binds to the receptors located on the muscle fiber’s plasma membrane.
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) Introduction to technique: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, RFLP is a method of genetic analysis that allows individuals to be identified on the basis of unique patterns of restriction enzyme cutting in the particular regions of DNA. This technique takes an advantage of the polymorphisms occur in individual people's genetic codes. Even though all members of a particular specie have fundamentally the same genetic makeup, but these slight differences account for variations in phenotype between individuals. Historical perspective: A British geneticist named Alec Jeffreys from Leicester University is accredited for the discovery and development of the RFLP method of DNA analysis and testing. He developed this method in 1985 as the
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
Another mechanism of action is the altering of expression and phosphorylation of member of the bcl-2 family of proteins, docetaxel associate with the phosphorylation and inactivation of bcl-2 protein, members of the bcl-2 family are highly conserved proteins which regulate apoptosis. Docetaxel can display a wide spectrum of anti-cancer activity in preclinical trials. The clinical trial has shown that docetaxel is effective against hormone refractory prostate
The growth hormone receptor- the action from the part of the growth hormone receptor is mainly due to the activation of the growth receptors. The activation of the receptors can take place by the direct activation of tyrosine kinase and the indirect activation can occur due to the induction of insulin. Excess activation of growth hormone may result in acromegaly or gigantism. Cancer and cell transformation are other types of side effects of excess activation of growth hormone. The growth hormone receptors are members of the Transmembrane family of proteins, including the cytokine receptors and prolactin receptor ( Waters,
Caldesmon 1 is a gene that is located on Chromosome 7: 134.74 – 134.97 Mb which encodes a calmodulin binding protein. (15) The products of CALD1 such as Calmodulin- and actin-binding proteins play an essential role in the regulation of smooth muscle and nonmuscle contraction. (16) CALD1 inhibits ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle like calponin. Caldesmon (CaD) is an actin-linked regulatory protein found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. It binds and stabilizes actin filaments, as well as regulating actin-myosin interaction in a calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)- and/or phosphorylation-dependent manner.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.