The newly made mRNA strand travels out of the nucleus to a ribosome where the directions can be made into a protein. A ribosome is composed of one large and one small subunit that assemble around the mRNA. The mRNA now passes through the ribosome. Now, amino acid building blocks are carried into the ribosome attached to specific transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The small subunit of the ribosome arranges the mRNA so that it can be read it segments of 3 nucleotides.
Moreover, SCC1 can also be replaced by REC8 (Revenkova and Jessberger, 2006). The Rad21-like protein (Rad21L) is a paralogue of the mammalian meiosis-specific SSC1/REC8 (Gutiérrez-Caballero et al., 2011). Uhlmann et al. (2011), reported three distinct classes of meiotic cohesin complexes. The first one has REC8 in the protein complex, while the second and third groups have Rad21L and Rad21Scc1 resectively (Uhlmann, 2011).
These pairs are Adenine and Thymine, and Cytosine and Guanine. DNA is compacted into chromosomes and is stored within the nucleus. DNA serves as the unique genetic instructions of all of life’s form and functions. DNA codes for the primary structure of all proteins, the most essential molecule for life, and these sequences of amino acids determine the structure and function of each protein.
In this prokaryotic specific mechanism, termination occurs by the formation of a stem loop hairpin structure which occurs at a palindrome. Palindrome A palindromic sequence occurs where a series of base pairs in the 5' to 3' direction on the DNA or RNA strand is repeated in the inverse sequence further along the same strand. This is the termination signal for the Rho Independent Termination. These sequences are able to base pair together as the RNA strand folds over on itself to form a stem loop structure as it is being transcribes. The sequence of the termination signal is followed by a series of Adenines which transcribes to a poly-Uracil tail on RNA.
Among these, there is the nucleus that contains most of the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. Here occur the DNA duplication and the first steps in decoding genetic information. In all eukaryotic cells, there are also: the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus,
NAT. REV. GENETICS 8 (4), 286–298 (2007)) Histone proteins, consist of a globular C-terminal domain and an unstructured N-terminal tail. The N-terminal tail of histones can undergo a variety of changes which include methylation and acetylation. These modifications mediate and control key cellular processes such as transcription, replication and repair within the human genome.
The roles are as follows for the bacterial cells, the structure flagella are the swimming movement of the cell, pili stabilizes the cells during DNA transfer, the capsules are used as protection for the cell when a method of killing or digestion is happening. The cell wall confers rigidity and the shape they have, the plasmic membranes are the barriers and the location for the enzyme systems which produces energy. The ribosomes like animal and plant is the factor for protein synthesis. The other functions like the Chromosomes and the plasmid make up the DNA of the cell. Explain how bacteria cells make energy for cellular processes.
It is constituting of 2130 coat protein molecules and a single-stranded RNA of 6400 bases. It’s rod like structure is assembled into a helix using the coat proteins and they form a hairpin structure(5,6). The protein monomer has 158 amino acids and assembled into four main alpha-helices that are joined to the central axis of the virus. The virion is 18 nm in width and 300 nm in length and a 4 nm core inside it(in the central part) (5,6,7). The TMV genome consists of 6.3-6.5 kb single stranded RNA and has a 3’ end which a t-RNA like structure and the 5’ end cap is methylated(8).
These glycoproteins are enable the virus to enter the host cell by serving as receptors for binding. The tegument is the next inner layer after the envelope, composed of another layer of viral proteins. Next is the nucleocapsid, a protein shell. The nucleocapsid contains the DNA of the virus. This capsule is a unique shape, it is a twenty-faced icosahedron.
Moreover, this experiment makes me understand the role of gel electrophoresis in DNA preparation and analysis. Through the experiment of building DNA, I knew more about the composition of DNA, and the way and order of deoxyribonucleotides. Through the DNA transcription and translation experiments, I learnt that mRNA is the transmitter of genetic information. I also knew that a genetic code corresponds to an amino acid. This made me have a deeper understanding of the process from genetic information to protein.