(2017) shows that healthcare providers often experience negative emotional repercussions from moral distress in the ICU, and patient care is frequently perceived as being negatively affected. In addition, the same study reveals that nurses and other health care providers in the intensive care unit are more likely to leave their job due to moral distress as compared to other hospital settings. Research has shown that moral distress and ethical issues can have profound impacts on health care providers, such as patient safety, workplace dissatisfaction, and emotional suffering. As a practicing ICU nurse, I also have my fair share of moral distress, and I often feel powerless or even angry when I am unable to practice according to my ethical standards. Moral distress was the last subject on my mind when I took the position in the intensive
Burnout is a problem because it is associated with lower morale. Reduced job performance, increased tardiness, job turnover, loss of productivity, high rates of absenteeism, and poor physical, mental and emotional health for individual workers. Many studies recently however have discovered low de grees of burnout among nurses as an occupational group. Job related stress is a widespread problem across industry, but it is endemic in the human services where nurses from the largest group. The assumption that nurses are prone to job stress and burnout – its most severe form is grounded in a vast literature on occupational stress demonstrating that nursing is a more stressful occupation.
Nurse and doctors both are important part of a hospital and there occupation is full of stress despite of different level of employment (Scott, 2013). Stress is classified as a precursor or stimulus in response to certain situations, interactions and harsh behaviors. It can also be defined as psychological behavior of a person in response to the environmental condition risking his or her life in danger. In hospital setup, there are certain issues relating to patients, long work hours, misinterpretations, shortage of medications and shortage of instruments that create stress for doctors and nurses. Such events predispose the stress factor and can be threating.
Finally, stress can be an unknown body reaction to a demand that lead to pressure or stress in reaction or response conditions. In other word, as mentioned, different response of stress in different people and conditions are different. (Caplan & Jones, 1975)Therefore, the question is if stress is an individual response or a social factor that lead to some psychological responses. Occupational stress inadvertently consequences low organizational performance (Elovainio et al. 2002), Job stress although has belittling impact on any organization and individual’s performance but can shape dire consequences when related to health care.
Stress can be defined in several definitions. According to Pinel (2003), stress is a physiological response to become aware of threat that happen around some people. However, in other terms, it is defined as a reaction of a body that requires a physical, emotional adjustment, or mental response (Kumar & Bhukar, 2013). Accoring to Salam, Yousuf, Bakar and Haque (2013) medical students face higher stress level than other faculty students. Regarding to Sathya Devi and Shaj Mohan (2015), stress arises when the combination of internal and external pressures exceeds the individual’s resources to cope with their situation.
Question 1 Everyone experiences stress in their day to day lives, many cite the workplace as a main cause for their stress due to intense workload, long hours and uncertain job expectations (Avey, Luthans & Jensen, 2009). Stress can be defined as a pattern of emotional and physiological reactions which occur in response to various demands, which can be internal or external of an organization (Greenberg, 2011). Symptoms of stress result in causing suffering to an individual, which affects absenteeism and productivity levels. Stress can also result in lower levels of job satisfaction, self-esteem, motivation, depression and heart disease (Giga, Cooper & Faragher, 2003). A recent stressful experience I have had this year is working long hours,
Stress refers to a dynamic interaction between the individual and the environment. In this interaction, demands, limitations and opportunities related to work may be perceived as threatening to surpass the individual's resources and skills. Stress is any physical or psychological stimulus that disturbs the adaptive state and provoked a coping response The increasing interest in stress research is probably because we live in a world that includes many stressful circumstances and stress has been a global phenomenon. It has become an integral part of life and is said to be the price we all pay for the struggle to stay alive. According to the American Academy of Family physicians, two- thirds of visits to family doctors
12. 2 Occupational Stress (OS) The prevalence of occupational stressors is widely acknowledged in service sector especially in hospitality industry (Kim et al., 2007; Wildes, 2007). Long and anti social working hours, lack of job control, and a high and conflicting work demands are but a few of the frequently cited causes (stressors) of occupational stress (Faulkner and Patiar, 1997). A historically high employee turnover rate (Wildes, 2007) also means that employees are often over stretched in understaffed situations (Rowley and Purcell, 2001), thereby amplifying stress levels (Ross, 1997). Left unchecked, prolonged stress has been found to be detrimental to both the well-being of employees and organization (De Croon et al., 2004).
2.6. Models Relating to Occupational Stress Mark and Smith (2012) emphasize two theories which are relating to the workplace stress and they are most influential and popular. They are demand – control – support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Demand-control-support model This model forecast that “high levels of job demand (external pressure and workload), low levels of job control (chance to use skills and over events), and low levels of social support (from colleagues, supervisors, feedback) are intensively related with the negative outcomes of health” (Karasek & Theorell 1990). This model forecast the relationship among the demand and control, as well as the demand and social support.
In JD-R model, work demand is considered a health impairment process that refers to the physical, psychological, social and organizational aspects of the job which require sustained physical and/or psychological effort or skills (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). In this regard, we categorize work demand using traditional occupational stress as that involving work overload, emotional demands and role reorganization and inject findings from Karasek (1979) that without proper occupational control would result in emotional exhaustion. As time demand of work from spatio-temporal dispersion separation effect increases, it exerts unresolved strain on GDT causing psychological and psychosomatic ailments invariably leading to depression, exhaustion and ultimately low QWL. This phenomenon establishes a correlated link between the pressure of work time demand and employee job satisfaction. JD-R model