From the above discussion, it seemed to be clear why I chose 'Social Cognitive Theory '. This theory seemed to be supported to my study because it focused on observation which plays fundamental role to learn English. This theory believs that learning takes places through direct observation, modeling, social environment, skills, stratigies, and attitudes. In EFL classroom, teachers exhibit different behaviors (verbal and nonverbal), skills, and attitudes by creating learning environment which may influence students to learn an English language.This theory helped me to see what types of nonverbals behaviors teachers demonstrate through modeling while teaching. Similarly, this theory gave me insight to explore the aims of this study.
5.0 Conceptual/ theoretical Framework The conceptual framework are two types of approaches being practiced by teachers which are Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation Method (GTM) depends on teachers. Both approaches have different effects for the competency in speaking. Students gain high competency in speaking with the practice of CLT approach, but low competency with GTM approach. The study asses into the activities conducted in class and lesson presentation from teachers by practicing CLT. Data gathered through the classroom observation and interview and being analyzed based on the conceptual framework.
The results obtained were used to confirm learners difficulties on literal reading comprehension and to plan an accurate intervention. Before starting the pedagogical intervention, learners were informed about the process they were to start. Teacher- researchers presented and explained the importance of the project and encouraged them to participate in the process to improve their reading. The starting point for this stage was a session devoted to present and explain the importance of the project and motivate learners to participate in a process to improve their reading performance and become self-directed readers.Besides, instructions about the questionnaires and test development were given to
When students interact with their friends while reading, it helps in their cognitive development which ultimately leads to learning. Moreover, teachers need to know the cognitive ability of students so they can introduce cognitive conflict at a reasonable level, where students can resolve it through assimilation and
(Ritualo, 2000). This work would serve educators, particularly in assessing students, Supervisors and Curriculum Planners to find understanding the outcome of assessment (traditional and authentic) on science appreciative and learning conclusions of scholars. Classroom assessment practices are based on teacher beliefs, training, knowledge and skills in educational assessment. Understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices remains pivotal for informed educational decisions that can be made about students’ learning outcomes. The results of this study may provide valuable insights for understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices and needs for teachers in and other parts of the world.
In this study, the instruction followed the criterial tasks of the K-12 Curriculum. The teacher was a facilitator guiding the learners to arrive at the meaning of a difficult word. While the teacher acted as a facilitator, the learners were involved in an activity of identifying the meaning of a difficult word using speed drawing and kinesics. Lastly, the learning strategies used in this study is akin to that of the K-12 Curriculum which is performance-based. Speed drawing and kinesics as strategies in improving vocabulary retention are characterized by direct participation of learners.
Curriculum knowledge is the teacher’s knowledge of the organization and sequencing of the topics to be taught. They should know how to make sound curricular decisions, including selecting appropriate materials and choosing teaching strategies that will help students understand key ideas (Hammond and Snowden 2005). Curriculum Knowledge guides the teacher’s decision making on the goals, aims and objectives of the class. Nancy had a clear idea of where she was going and how she was going to get her students to get there. “Although as a teacher she maintained tight control of the classroom discourse, her teaching goals were to liberate her students’ minds through literacy, eventually to use great works of literature to illuminate their own lives.” (Schulman 1987).
Preparing learners for tasks: the teacher prepares the learners for the task by introducing the topic, clarifying task instructions, providing demonstration of task procedures. The teacher may facilitate the accomplishment of the task by providing such hints explicitly or implicitly. c. Consciousness- raising: Also, the teacher needs to help/guide the learners in focusing on the critical features of the language they hear in doing a particular task. The teacher is assumed to employ a variety of techniques and activities to achieve this goal, e.g attention focusing pre-task activities, guided exposure to parallel tasks etc. 5.
In the pre-reading, the teacher sets a task to create interest in the topic, to motivate students and to prepare them for the text, “What pre-teaching phase tries to do is: to introduce and arouse interest in the topic. To motivate learners by giving them a reason for reading. To provide some language preparation for the text” (Williams, Eddie “Reading in the Language
Appropriate teaching methods, reinforcement, motivation and teaching aids can improve language learning. Many factors are involved in the learning process. One of the most important factors is motivation, which can bring out the learners’ ability to succeed in accomplishing tasks. The learners may usually make mistakes in the process of acquiring a second language. It is the responsibility of the teachers to handle their mistakes in a wise manner.