One major problem that can occur when growing in east Texas is bud abortion, which is the first sign of the plants being stressed by ether to hot a climate or a climate that is to dry. Both of these types of stress are common in east Texas where summers reach into the hundreds and very little rain falls. Aphids are another common problem with lilies, because the aphids eat the plants fluids causing the plant to lose its vigor. Aphids also carry viruses that can be transmitted from plant to plant as they feed. Aphids can attack lilies in both the field and inside the greenhouse, it is important to identify the type of aphid in order to treat your plants accordingly.
Free radicals contain an electron (e–) as in case of superoxide (•O2–) radical and the hydroxyl radical (•OH) whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a non-radical do not contains electron in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides (ROOH). Radicals can react with other radicals or with non-radicals depending on availability of (e–). Initiation of free radical chain reaction occurs if polyunsaturated fatty acid is attacked by free radicals. This phenomenon occurs due to abundant molecular oxygen (O2) presence which reacts rapidly with free radicals. By-product of normal aerobic metabolites as superoxide radical (•O2–) are produced by addition of one electron to O2 (a univalent reduction of O2).
It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest ketone. Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. It is a common building block in organic chemical science. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes.
The literature melting point range of methyl trans-cinnamate is ~34-38oC (Aldrich).4 The obtained melting point of the crude was 34.5-35.5oC, which is a highly narrow range of less than 1oC difference and it also falls within the expected melting point range. Hence, the crystal lattice structure of the product is largely intact, requiring an even amount of thermal energy to melt the sample. The experimental melting point range indicates the crude product is relatively pure with minimal impurities. The percent yield was satisfactory, having a 68% yield. To optimize this yield, consider the steps in how the reagents are introduced to the reaction mixture in terms.
People are usually exposed to Agent Orange through contaminated foods such as, meats, poultry, dairy products, eggs, shellfish, or fish. They are exposed through these foods because the dioxin accumulates in the fatty tissues of birds, fish, and other organisms causing them to be toxic. Short term exposure to Agent Orange can cause darkening of skin, problems with the liver, a severe acne-like disease called chloracne, type two diabetes, immune and muscular dysfunctions, nerve disorder, and even heart disease. The dioxin in Agent Orange was very harmful to growing babies. It has been known to cause miscarriages, spinal problems, fetal brain, and nervous issues.
The mode of action of lantana toxin appears to be by inhibiting the active secretion of bile canaliculi in liver and result secondary photosensitization in all grazing animals (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). Due to its strong allopathic properties, aggressiveness and its dense impenetrable thorny thickets, Lantana camara has the potential to interrupt the health and regeneration process of other species by decreasing germination, growth of seedlings and biomass production which in turn increases mortality and decline of plant species, pasture and crops (Gentle and Duggin, 1998; Catherine and Russell, 2005; Sharma et al., 2005; Sharma and Raghubanshi, 2006). Lantana camara was introduced to Ethiopia as an ornamental plant due to its beautiful aromatic flowers (Binggeli and Desalegn, 2002). However, because of prolific seed production and easy dispersal, it escaped cultivation and become a pest in the social, ecological and economic concerns. Presently, it has spread almost all over the country, but still it is not much perceived as a chronic environmental problem, except in few parts of Ethiopia, such as Oromia and Somali regions (Binggeli and Desalegn,
CHAPTER 7 CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS In the previous chapter, you have learned about how non-metals make chemical bonds by sharing electrons from their outer shells to attain stable electronic configurations. This is also the process by which every carbon compounds or organic compound is formed. In this chapter, the lessons will be about the carbon atom and the common organic compounds that it can form: the hydrocarbons, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and alcohols. Content Standards The learners demonstrate understanding of the types of bonds that carbon forms that result in the diversity of carbon compouds. Performance Standards To investigate about the primary elemental component of organic compounds Learning Competencies To explain
Herbicides and pesticides may keep yards looking nice but they are in fact hazardous pollutants that affect wildlife at many levels. Many herbicides and pesticides take a long time to degrade and build up in the soils or throughout the food chain. Predators such as hawks, owls and coyotes can be harmed if they eat poisoned
Harmful Fungi: (i) They cause diseases in important crops, e.g., late blight of potato (Phytophthora infestans), black stem rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis), brown spot of rice (Helminthosporium oryzae), etc. (ii) They induce animal and human diseases, e.g., mycosis caused by infestation of Aspergillus, Cercospora and Cryptococcus. (iii) They also spoil fruits, vegetables and all kinds of foodstuff. Beneficial Fungi Industrial Use: Fungi form the most useful basis in industries like, baking and brewing (Saccharomyces), preparation of cheese (Penicillium) and commercial production of citric acid (Aspergillus niger). ADVERTISEMENTS: Antibiotics: Wonder drug, penicillin, is an antibiotic extracted from fungus Penicillium notatum.
Some researchers found out that also has other natural acids that is use to kill pest. But this study will only focus on killing cockroaches using the extract of the plant. Cockroaches belong to the king animalia, Phylum anthropoda, class insecta and order blattaria. Cockroaches carries various bacteria’s, that once intake can destroy the immune system of our body that will result to various diseases, since they are commonly found near waste deposits. This study will be conducted to determine the effectiveness of Sargassum extract as an alternative pesticide for Cockroaches.