Treatment with fungicides however, checked the suppressive effects of the fungus and increased the shoot length by 13.1-25.4%. Similarly, root length was also increased by 10.5-25.1%. Carbendazim and captan were the most effective treatments and mancozeb was the least effective (P≤0.05, Table
A. Chickpea starches The chickpea is higher in carbohydrates than other pulses. Chickpea contains monosaccharides (0.7% glucose, 0.25% fructose, 0.11% ribose and 0.05% galactose,), disaccharides (1-2% sucrose and 0.6% maltose) as well as oligosaccharides (raffinose). Oligosaccharides cannot be absorbed or hydrolyzed by the human digestive system however they are fermented by colonic bacteria to release gases or flatulence. Gas production is greater after chickpea consumption compared with other pulses, and this could be due to an important content of oligosaccharides in chickpea . Nutritionally, Kabuli chickpeas are a little bit higher in total sugar (mono-, di- and oligosaccharides), compared with Desi chickpeas .
Physical pretreatment involves comminution, pyrolysis or irradiation of the biomass. Comminution aims at mechanical size reduction by chipping, shredding, grinding or milling. These treatments increase the available specific surface area and reduce both the degree of polymerization and cellulose crystallinity. Milling and grinding are more effective in reduction of cellulose crystallinity and biomass size (0.2-2 mm) than chipping (10-30 mm) (Alvira et al 2010). Vibratory ball milling is more efficient than the ordinary milling process (Sun and Cheng, 2002).
It is faster due to the filter funnels surface area. Results/Observations Experimental data resulted as expected because it was found that on experiment one, Benzoic Acid could recrystallize with a better recovery percentage than the solvent pair in experiment two. The mass recovered in experiment one was 0.048g while experiment two had a mass recovery of 0.045g. Solvent(s) Used Mass of “Crude” (g) Mass of Recovered (g) Amount of Solvent Used (mL) Percent Recovered (%) Experiment One Water (H2O) .051 .048 1.0 94.1 Experiment Two Methanol (MeOH) And Water (H2O) .049 .045 Methanol – 1.5 Water – 0.5 92 Conclusion Both experiments were of fair solubility, but in the case of recrystallization of Benzoic Acid, Water was the best solvent to recrystallize acid the most. Experimental data determined that there was a difference of .003g between using the single solvent in comparison to the paired solvent.
Also, the soil moisture content was less at sprinkler irrigation than surface and drip irrigation through the soil profile 2- The distribution of root length density of faba bean roots was spread at the top layer (72%) under drip irrigation more than sprinkler and surface irrigation (64.5 and 63%, respectively). The specific root length was higher under drip irrigation (18.41 cm g-1 root dry weight) than the specific root length under surface and sprinkler irrigation (13 and 8.6 cm g-1 root dry weight). The same result was observed for the distribution of onion's roots. Thus because drip irrigation allows frequent application of shallow irrigation depths. 3- Ammonium concentration was higher at the surface irrigation than drip and sprinkler irrigation, respectively.
Compared with control, addition of HP into the basal diet resulted in a decrease of Methane production (P < 0.05). These findings are consistent with prior results of different types of herbal plant supplementation to diets that showed addition of herbal plant and its component into the basal diet resulted in a decrease of Methane production (P < 0.05). Decreasing ruminal methane output could improve animal efficiency due to reduced losses of feed energy. The reduction in methane may be due to the inhibition of fiber degradation and decline in methanogenic archaea. The trace compounds in the herbal plant may inhibition of methanogenic archaea bacteria and or microbial fermentation, subsequently decreasing methanogenesis.
Water: Water is universal solvent, used to extract plant products with antimicrobial activity. Though traditional healers use primarily water but plant extracts from organic solvents have been found to give more consistent antimicrobial activity compared to water extract. Also water soluble flavonoids (mostly anthocyanins) have no antimicrobial significance and water soluble phenolics only important as antioxidant compound (Das K et al.,2010). 2. Acetone: Acetone dissolves many hydrophilic and lipophilic components, is miscible with water, is volatile and has a low toxicity, it is a very useful extractant, especially for antimicrobial studies where more phenolic compounds are required to be extracted.
Kumar et al., reported that plants belongs to Brassicaceae family are commonly used accumulators and hyperaccumulator plants. But most of the plants belongs to this family have slow growth rate and low biomass production. Among all the plant Brassica juncea is one of the best plants which are used in phytoremediation with higher growth rate (Kumar et al., 1995; Saxena et al., 1999). Therefore PGPR assisted phytoremediation by using hyperaccumulator plants Brassica juncea is an emergent technology and need special attention to explore this area. Our aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cadmium tolerant PGPR and check their effects on growth and uptake metal of Brassica juncea in cadmium contaminated soil.
The important process of shortening by using mango seed oil is extraction of steric acid in solvent. This free trans fatty acid composition can able to mixture in shortening processes more than 55%. However, this shortening will have higher cost than the shortening that make from hydrogenation. The benefit of this shortening are safety and healthy for the consumer. (Reddy SY, 2001) The taste and food safety are the fact that need to consider for consuming of mango seed.
On the other hand, Mycorrhizal symbiosis delayed the leaf water potential drop under drought stress, also Mycorrhizal plants are much faster than non-mycorrhizal plants in absorbing the water and leaf water potential to reach balance (Wu et al., 2005). Mycorrhizal plants due to their much developed leaf area, lead to decrease in transpiration. In addition, mycorrhizal fungi cause the better osmotic adjustment and improve the relationship between water and plant by extending the hyphae around the root system and subsequently increasing the water absorption (Fagbola et al., 2001; Johnson and Hummel., 1985). Mycorrhizal fungi may change the shape and size of the roots in two aspects including 1. Nutritional