Review of the Literature
2.1. Osteopenia As Public Health Problem: An Overview Osteopenia refers to bone density that is lower than normal peak density but not low enough to be classified as osteoporosis. Bone density is a measurement of how dense and strong the bones are. If your bone density is low compared to normal peak density, you are said to have osteopenia. if there is a greater risk that, as time passes, you may develop bone density and become very low compared to normal, known as osteoporosis. Bones naturally become thinner as people grow older because, beginning in middle age, existing bone cells are reabsorbed by the body faster than new bone is made. As this occurs, the bones lose minerals, heaviness (mass), …show more content…
Of these, approximately 80% are women. The condition is responsible for millions of fractures annually, mostly involving the lumbar vertebrae, hip, and wrist. Fragility fractures of ribs are also common in men
Figure1. Common fracture sites for osteoporosis
a. Hip fracture Hip fractures are responsible for the most serious consequences of osteoporosis. In the United States, more than 250,000 hip fractures annually are attributable to osteoporosis. A 50-year-old white woman is estimated to have a 17.5% lifetime risk of fracture of the proximal femur. The incidence of hip fractures increases each decade from the sixth through the ninth for both women and men for all populations. The highest incidence is found among men and women ages 80 or older
b. Vertebral fracture Between 35% and 50% of all women over 50 had at least one vertebral fracture. In the United States, 700,000 vertebral fractures occur annually, but only about a third are recognized. In a series of 9704 women aged 68.8 on average studied for 15 years, 324 had already suffered a vertebral fracture at entry into the study and 18.2% developed a vertebral fracture, but that risk rose to 41.4% in women who had a previous vertebral
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a disorder of the bones which causes the bones to be very weak and fragile. The bones are weak due to poor quality or absence of collagen produced by the body. Usually this disease is inherited by the parents due to a genetic mutation. Osteogenesis imperfecta is usually present at birth.
Your hip area may also be cleaned if your fracture requires a bone graft that is taken from your hipbone. • The surgeon will make a cut (incision) through your skin to expose the areas of the fracture. • The broken bones will be put back into their normal positions. The surgeon will use screws, screws and a metal plate, or different types of wiring to hold the bones in place. •
Present the Evidence: Prevention of Patient Falls According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), each year, one third of those who are 65 and older fall (2013). These falls contributed to $34 billion in direct medical costs in 2013 (cite). With these statistics, it is apparent that health care professionals and health care settings need to make fall prevention a priority in their facilities. The aim of this paper is to explore a fall prevention policy and practice guidelines to evaluate recent evidence and offer recommendations.
This is totally true for people over the age of 40, when natural bones replacement is reducing and declining. However, one should not consume more than 2,000 mg of calcium per day since side effects of calcium supplementation include constipation, indigestion, and increased risk of kidney stones. (AAOS) To improve bones strength, one also needs to start at an early age getting plenty of vitamin D. One can get vitamin D by exposing their bodies to the sun to trigger vitamin D
How A Kyphoplasty Helps With Compression Fractures Caused By Osteoporosis Compression fractures are a common problem associated with osteoporosis. When your bones get thin and weak, the stress placed on your spine when you bend, twist, or even just sneeze, can cause a tiny fracture. If you have a larger fracture, or several tiny ones in one vertebra, it can cause the vertebra to compress, or collapse. This can be very painful and the pain makes it difficult to continue with normal activities. One solution to this problem is to have a kyphoplasty procedure.
NPR Blows the Whistle on the Invention of Osteopenia Experts have been saying that osteopenia is an ailment which the drug companies have invented in order to sell their drugs. Recently, NPR has come up with an informative article where they have put forward few interesting facts in relation to this matter Giselle Grayson was the person who conducted the research on this topic for NPR. In her article, she has written how Benghauser and millions of other women like her have been using the pills for osteopenia from all over the United Sates. In this article, we will tell you what she has articulated the role that the drug companies play while in the process of evolution of a disease In the year 1992, osteopenia experts from all over the globe
As working as a Certified Nursing Assistant in a long term care rehabilitation facility, I encounter many elderly patients who are admitted for fall related injuries. The majority of patients are recovering from total knee and hip replacements as a result from falling at home or elsewhere. Fuller states, “Falls are the leading cause of injury related visits to emergency departments in the United States and the primary etiology of accidental deaths in persons over the age of 65 years…More than 90 percent of hip fractures occur as a result of falls, with most of these fractures occurring in persons of over 70 years of age” (Fuller, 2000, para.1). There are many factors that can contribute to the reason why individuals, particularly the elderly,
Fractures could include into back or neck pain also and this stage is when the compression of the spine will be caused, this could lead to loss of height and at this is the most noticeable stage where height will be lost and it is visible. The upper back can also develop a slight curving and this will be because of a stooped posture also known as kyphosis, both neck and back pain will start to develop which could also affect breathing as the extra pressure on the airway is
The clinical practice guidelines that were selected for this paper are from the National Guideline Clearinghouse and from International journal of nursing studies. The Hendrich Fall Risk Model was primarily developed as a predictive nursing assessment tool based on epidemiological research (NGC, 2011). The Guidelines were developed by the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing the committee was however not stated. Authors were asked to sign confidentiality documents and all the authors agreed this. The research was conducted by hand searches of public literature and searches of electronic database.
Femoral neck fractures are fractures that occur through the neck of the femur. Although they can occur in anyone, they are commonly known for affecting the older population. Femoral neck fractures typically occur due to falls or other trauma such as motor vehicle accidents. It is estimated that more than one third of adults over the age of 65 fall each year. Falls are the leading cause of injury related deaths in older adults.
Fall-related fracture is the common phenomenon in older adults resulting in chronic pain, loss of function, and disability. Evidently, it is the highest cause of accidental death in older adults. Noteworthy, the frequency of falls increases with age and frailty levels. Moreover, frail older adults, with a history of falling, are significantly at risk of adverse health outcomes including increased hospital stays and death. The causation of fall in frail older adults are intricate and interfere with the interrelationship between individual and environment context.
References Bilik, O., Damar, H. T., & Karayurt, O. (2017). Fall behaviors and risk factors among elderly patients with hip fractures. Acta Paulista De Enfermagem, 30(4), 420-427. doi:10.1590/1982-0194201700062 Nicholas, J., & Wiseman, M. (2009). ELDERLY POVERTY AND SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME.