Computerized tomography (CT) scan combines X-ray images taken from many different directions into cross-sectional views of internal organs. CT scans can provide detailed information about the structures within the heart and lungs. 4.3.2 Lab tests. A test using blood from an artery in your wrist can measure oxygen level. ABGs showed a normal or decreased PaCo2 despite severe dyspnea and hypoxemia.
It allows the neurologist to detect diseases at its early stages (Galotti, 2008). PET scans measure the blood flow to different regions of the brain, resulting in an electronic reconstruction of a picture of the brain, outlining which areas of the brain are most active at a particular time (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994). There are several advantages and disadvantages of a PET scan. The positive aspect of a PET scan enables early detection of certain neurological illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy. In addition, it is used as an alternative to a biopsy to determine how far a disease has spread (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994).
2.5 Intravascular ultrasound: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an imaging modality that uses ultrasound to generate realtime imaging of vascular structures. Images of the vascular lumen are obtained by placing a catheter with a miniature transducer on its distal end into a vessel. Vascular endothelium is assessed. IVUS makes use of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT), which is based on energy transferal by a change in capacitance. Apte, Chang, Khuri-Yakub, Mioni, Nikoozadeh, Sarioglu & Zhuang (2014:107) states that CMUT are silicon micromachining processes with a ring shaped array utilized in intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) and IVUS.
Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
It is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body’s major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arm, leg, neck and head. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound i.e. color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler. • Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the direction and speed of blood flow through a blood vessels. • Power Doppler is a sensitive technique then the color technique and it shows more detail about blood flow.
Angiography If the CT or the LP reveals the presence of blood angiography is performed to identify where the aneurysm is located and to plan treatment. Angiography where a catheter is threaded into the arteries of the brain and dye is injected while pictures are taken can demonstrate the anatomy of the arteries and uncover the presence and location of an aneurysm. CT angiography or MR angiography may be performed without threading catheters into the brain as is the case with a formal
Of course there are complications if it is not treated quickly, because we all know that we can avoid financial problems in this life. COMPLICATIONS : • Tears in the wall and rupture of the aorta are the main complication of thoracic aortic aneurysm. A ruptured aneurysm is so dangerous that some people can die because of the internal bleeding. • Trouble swallowing, Loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, trouble breathing, pain at the back, intense chest pain, shortness of breath, low blood pressure and weakness or paralysis of one side of the body sometimes the other sign for Stroke, are the symptoms that your thoracic aortic aneurysm has
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma taking histopathology as the gold standard. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Bronchogenic Carcinoma All those patients who had a pulmonary lesion on X ray along with history of symptoms like hemoptysis, weight loss, and recurrent pleural effusion etc. will be taken as possible cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Diagnostic Accuracy of the investigation will be assessed via sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT scan taking histopathology findings as true negative or positive. MATERIALS AND
3-CT It is radiological exam that uses x-ray tube to produce cross sectional images of the body by rotating around it and detecting the radiation coming out of it. This modality able to provide internal soft tissue details so it asses to reveal if any lymph node or organ are enlarged. CT are helpful in looking for any lymph in abdomen, pelvis, chest, head, and neck(2). and hepatosplenomegaly, or filling defects in the liver and spleen. CT is used for initial staging, assessing response to therapy , and for follow-up.
Some of the laboratory test that are used are the antinuclear antibody test or ANA this test detects an antibody present in serum of the patients with systemic lupus ertrhematosus or SLE and other autoimmune disease. So if one was looking in a patient 's chart and sees that ANA is in the file the medical professional will understand and know that the antinuclear antibody test has been performed on the patient. Even though there are other medical terms that have the abbreviations that are ANA a medical professional needs to understand the difference, and know how to read the right terms with abbreviations. There are other procedures that are included such as rheumatoid factor test or RF, this is also where serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Now that we have gone over some of the laboratory test now let us look into some of the clinical procedures.
Ultrasound is particularly advantageous in this case because blood flow to the tumor can be assessed in the same exam using Doppler settings. Pathologies wherein tendons pull a portion of Cortical bone away from the bone surface, such as Osgood-Schlatter disease and avulsion fractures, are often well depicted with ultrasound. Stress fractures too small to be seen on radiographs can often be directly seen with ultrasound. Ultrasound is also a valuable tool for diagnosing and monitoring rheumatic diseases. The orthopedic pathologies which can be diagnosed with ultrasound are numerous.
Depending on the invasive ness of the tumor a lymph node biopsy might be conducted to see if any of the draining lymph nodes were affected (Hodgetts, 2013). If this comes back positive a radical lymph node dissection will be necessary, this may be followed by radiation, depending on the number of nodes affected (Hodgetts, 2013). In the treatment of stage IV tumors there are many methods used. Tumors and lymph nodes may be surgically removed. Patients may also be treated with radiation, immunotherapy, chemotherapy or targeted therapy.
In mesothelioma, radiation therapy can be used after surgery to try and eradicate any small tumors that couldn’t be viewed and resected during surgery. This is called adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and IMRT can also be used on a palliative basis to ease the symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. These include shortness of breath, pain, bleeding and trouble swallowing. IMRT often requires multiple treatment sessions.