Baumrind's Parenting Styles

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A well-known psychologist, Baumrind (1967, 1971) identified three main parenting styles which are used by parents mainly of preschool and older children. These parenting styles are named as follows: authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting and permissive parenting. Parenting as by definition is considered to be an important element of several aspects of children 's outcome (Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, and Onghena, 2004). Everyone was brought up according to a certain parenting style or more than one parenting style. Parenting errors have an influence on a child’s behaviour especially during adolescence. This may be shown in relationships that a child has with others, a child’s self-concept and self-esteem, furthermore, it may also lead to…show more content…
authoritative parenting is more about setting limits, showing warmth and trying to meet the needs of their children. Authoritative parents consistently monitor conduct and use non-punitive methods of discipline when rules are violated. Equally important, in return they expect socially responsible and mature behaviour by children and when such behaviours are met they reinforce them. (Baumrind, 1991; Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987). Children who are raised by authoritative parents tend to become more independent, understanding as well as well behaved. According to research, it has been suggested that a child growing up under an authoritative parent makes a difference (Fletcher et al 1999). Authoritative parents never let their children get away with bad behavior; they expect their children to behave responsibly by simply taking a firm stand. Some researchers sum it up this way “Authoritative parents are both highly responsive and very demanding” (Maccoby and Martin 1983). Baumrind (1967, 1971) found children of authoritative parents to be self-reliant, self-controlled and soundly competent. As authoritative parenting provides a balance between control and independence, it produces competent, socially responsible, self-assured, and independent children (Gonzalez-Mena 1993). Children are more likely to develop high self-esteem, positive self-concept, greater self-worth, less rebellion, and generally are more successful…show more content…
They do not demand much from the children and they do not enforce rules. They do not monitor their children’s activities; again, they allow the children to make most of their decisions at an early age. The permissive parenting style is characterized by low demandingness but high responsiveness (Pellerin, 2005). The main idea of permissive parenting is to allow the child extensive autonomy and independence, supported by high parental support, in the hopes of establishing close relationships with their children (Peterson & Hann, 1999). Permissive parents take orders and instructions from their children, are passive, endow children with power (Gonzalez-Mena 1993; Garbarino and Abramowitz 1992), have low expectations, use minimal discipline, and do not feel responsible for how their children turn out. This style of parenting is believed to directly contribute to low cognitive and emotional empathy development (Aunola et. al., 2000). These children are most likely to experience psychological problems, commit violence and engage in antisocial behavior. As their psychological needs are not met, children start to have a low self-esteem and low
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