The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
IMAGE 177 IMAGE 178 Tight hip rotator muscles pull on the leg so it falls to the outside, sometimes evenly and sometimes not. The primary function of the psoas muscle is to flex the hip, but it is an accessory muscle, also, for hip external rotation. When the legs fall out into external rotation while the patient is in supine, you can be sure
It connects anterior tibia and posterior femur diagonally. It controls the backward and forward movements of the knee. Also, it regulates the tibia bone from moving in front of the femur. ACL injury usually happens when the people suddenly twist their knee in the opposite way after they jump and land. So, volleyball and basketball players are most likely to have this injury.
Fixing the improper placing can also help no further damage to ensue. Eventually, dancers may develop arthritis in the knee as well as other joints around the body due to the excessive wear and tear on the joints. To end, patellofemoral pain syndrome is caused by improper technique and can lead to pain lasting a lifetime. In summation, it is vital that a dancer possesses technique as so not to hurt themselves. The safety of the dance steps is much more important than creating the desired image.
A STUDY OF THE BIFURCATION OF SCIATIC NERVE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE ABSTRACT Background:The sciatic nerve ,the principal nerve of the posterior compartment of the lower limb normally divides at the superior angle of popliteal fossa.Sometimes there could be higher division.,the knowledge of which is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during surgeries in the gluteal region . Materials and Method: The study was conducted in 64 lower limbs at Government Stanley Medical College,Chennai and Government Mohan Kumaramangalam Medical College,Salem. Results: In 60 limbs, the sciatic nerve divided at superior angle of popliteal fossa.In 3 limbs,there was higher division at the level of upper part of the thigh.In 1 limb,there was intrapelvic
Gluteus Maximus, Medius & Minimus, Tensor Fascia Lata and Quadrates Femoris) was associated with chronic stages of Piriformis syndrome. This could explain the decreased internal rotation range of motion in ipsilateral hip joint with increased severity and continuity of the
It locks the midfoot during toe-off to provide a rigid structure for propulsion.The plantar fascia then passively contracts, converting the previously stored potential energy into kinetic energy and aiding acceleration.15 Pathophysiology of the plantar fascia is a thickened fibrous sheet of connective tissue that originates from the medial tubercle on the undersurface of the calcaneus and fans out, attaching to the plantar plates of the metatarsophalangeal joints to form the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. It provides key functions during running and walking. In general, the purpose of the plantar fascia is two fold to provide support of the longitudinal arch and to serve as a dynamic shock absorber for the foot and entire
The Patellofemoral and knee joints would be open, but she has small bone spurs projecting from the patella, going posteriorly towards the femur and superiorly from the tibia towards the femur. The patient is under rotated because the lateral condyle is not completely superimposed over the medial condyle of the femur. The medial condyle is the one that appears “smaller” because it is closest to the image receptor. The lateral condyle is more posterior than the medial so the patient needs to be rotated more. The knee joint is not in the center of the collimated field.
Skin fold measurements were taken at 6 sites namely Triceps, Biceps, Thigh, Subscapular, Suprailiac and Abdomen. The measurements were divided into two groups Central fat Mass (CFM) and Peripheral fat mass (PFM). For the assessment of CFM the sum of Abdominal, Suprailiac and Subscapular were used and for the assessment of PFM the sum of Triceps, Biceps and Thigh were used. The ratio of CFM to PFM was analyzed in both control and study group, sex wise (European Journal of Endocrinology, Volume 156, Issue 6, 655-661).
Decreases in voluntary torque generation at the extremes of the functional joint range of motion (0° to90° flexion) may be attributed to mechanical and/or muscle activation factors. Also as discussed, at this extended range the muscle is not at optimal length and the numbers of actin sites available for cross-bridge binding is limited. Brownstein et al. (1985) found that peak torque was coincident with maximum IEMG at 50° for males and 70° in females of knee flexion. With Subject 1’s (male) maximum quadriceps isometric contraction occurring at a 60° knee joint angle and Subject 2’s (female) occurring at 75°, our results correlate quite closely with these