Perinatal death, especially one that is sudden, is an emotionally traumatic experience for everyone involved and should not be taken lightly. The perinatal period is defined as the period that commences after 22 completed weeks of gestation, which ends seven completed days after birth. Perinatal death is also known as stillbirth, and globally, more than 2 million stillbirths occur each year 12. One cause of perinatal death is meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Meconium, known colloquially as ‘the first stool of the newborn’, is a viscous, dark-green substance consisting of intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucous, and intestinal secretions. 85 95% of meconium is liquid, formed by water. The remaining percentage constitute solid components, the …show more content…
It is secreted by type II alveolar cells, which secrete alveolar fluid (surfactant is a component of alveolar fluid). Surfactant is a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins, which serves to lower the surface tension of alveolar fluid, 30 preventing collapse of alveoli and maintaining their patency 8. Meconium, when aspirated into the lungs, deactivates surfactant. Research has also shown that meconium disturbs surfactant synthesis, with a study concluding that surfactant phosphatidylcholine (a phospholipoprotein which forms about 85% of the lipid component in surfactant) concentrations are low in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome 14. In addition, another study has demonstrated the surfactant-stripping effect of meconium, due to the high minimum surface tensions of the major free fatty acids of meconium (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids) 15,16. These effects can cause negatively impact pulmonary function, one of which is diffuse atelectasis 13. Figure 5-2: Chest radiograph of a full-term infant with coarse interstitial infiltrates of meconium aspiration pneumonitis. Retrieved from:
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Fractured Clavicle Occurs in during difficult birth due to unequal movement of the upper extremities Abdomen: Normal Finding A. Shape Round, dome shaped and nondistended B. Umbilical Cord Two arteries, one vein, whitish gray color, odorless C. Bowel sounds Present 1-2 hours after birth Abnormal Abdomen: Definition A. Distension: Fullness of the abdomen above the umbilicus caused by ruptured viscus or tumors. B. Imperforate Anus Blockage of the anus or missing of the anus C. Meconium Ileus Bowel obstruction caused by thick abnormal meconium Genitalia: (complete female and male) Normal finding or Definition A. Female (labia, clitoris, meatus, edema, pseudo- menstruation) 2pts Labia majora covers the labia minora and clitoris and are usually edematous
The child immediately improved and was stable on continuous delivery for many hours. When the source of the humidified water was switched to a Vapotherm system at the same flow (10 L/min) but not containing epinephrine, the child’s croup worsened, only to improve again when epinephrine was added to the humidifying water. A similar experience was found with a second child with croup which led to the hypothesis that epinephrine may be deliverable in the vapour phase as opposed to droplets as has been the usual method with a nebulizer. It also appeared that the improvement in upper airway obstruction was not due (at least alone) to the high flow delivering continuous positive airway pressure, as originally theorized by Klein and
Here is an example of a model case of perinatal loss: Mary is a 30 year old gravida 2 para 1 with a 2 year old daughter Molly. She and her husband Mike are enjoying being parents to Molly and decided to have another baby. They were overjoyed to learn at about 5 weeks gestation, just a few days after Mary’s missed period via a home pregnancy test that Mary was expecting her second child. Having had an uneventful first pregnancy she begins to happily make plans for her new arrival. She is responsible about what she eats, she makes sure to take her daily prenatal vitamin, forgoes her occasional glass of wine and makes a doctor’s appointment for her first prenatal check-up ensuring that her baby is going to get all the necessary tests.
A.H is a twenty-seven-year-old Arabic speaking mother who was admitted October 4, 2015 for fetus delivery. Gestation at this time was 40 weeks and one day. Her last menstrual period was December 30, 2014. Her Gravida ( G), Term births (T), Preterm Birth ( P), Abortions (A) and Living children (L) is 2/2/0/0/2. She gave birth to R.H, a beautiful baby girl, October 5, 2015 at 0817.
Premises 1: Abortion of a fetus is a deliberate destruction of human life that begins at conception, unless the woman’s life is in danger due to the pregnancy. Premises 2: Week 6-8 internal organs are beginning to work and the baby’s heart has been beating since the third week. ”(VA/DOD Management of Pregnancy Clinical Practice Guideline. 2009). Premises 3: The sense of touch can begin to develop as early as seven to eight weeks and twenty weeks unborn babies are feel the pain.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) which is also identified as cot death is the sudden, unforeseen and unexplained death of an apparently well baby. In the UK, just under 300 babies die suddenly and unpredictably every year. This statistic may sound shocking, but SIDS is scarce and the risk of your baby dying from it is low. Most deaths happen in the course of the first six months of a baby’s life. Infants born too early or with a low birthweight are at bigger risk.
patient was put under close observation with symptomatic treatment in ICU for two weeks. After close monitoring for 2 weeks CT Thorax lung showed spontaneous complete resolution of pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and subcutaneous emphysema.(Fig
The tiny air sacs (alveoli) become inflamed and fill up with fluid making it difficult to breath. Due to the fluid build up the symptoms are a cough, but you may also have a rapid heartbeat and fever, sweats and loss of appetite as your body fights the infection. You can also experience chest pain. Croup is a a condition that is commonly found in children. It affects the trachea (windpipe) and the airways to the Bronchi (lungs) and the voice box (larynx).
Management, assessment and prognosis of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Introduction: Meconium aspiration syndrome is one of the most common causes of respiratory distress in neonates. It may happen during antepartum or intrapartum periods and can result in airway obstruction, defect in gas exchange of the lung , pneumonia and dysfunction of the surfactant . It occurs as a result of fetal hypoxia that leads to increasing peristalsis with anal sphincter relaxation and reflex gasping. Aim: to determine the methods used for management , assessment and prognosis of meconium aspiration syndrome.
Neonatal sepsis can be divided into two subtypes depending upon whether the onset of symptom is during first 72 hours of life or later. The term early onset neonatal sepsis refers to those infections which occur in first 72 hours oflife. It is caused by organisms prevalent in the genital tract or in the labor room. The predisposing factors include low birth weight (LBW),prolonged rupture of membranes; foul smelling liquor,multiple per vaginalexaminations, maternal fever, difficult or prolonged labor and aspiration of
INTRODUCTION A gas chromatograph (GC) can be utilized to analyze the contents of a sample quantitatively or in certain circumstances also qualitatively. In the case of preparative chromatography, a pure compound can be extracted from a mixture. The principle of gas chromatography can be explained as following: A micro syringe is used to inject a known volume of vaporous or liquid analyte into the head or entrance of a column whereby a stream of an inert gas acts a carrier (mobile phase). The column acts as a separator of individual or chemically similar components.