One of the aspects of language is speech sound. The study of speech sound in language is called phonology. Each language has its own speech sound structure which differ from one language to another language. By learning the speech sound structure of language, not only can we recognize and understand how to pronounce a word of a language correctly, but can also produce the word using correct pronunciation. Furthermore, we will be able to explain why we should pronounce it that way.
Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing. The importance of this capability is to the extent that some children especially poor reader may never attain qualification for doing the complex phoneme manipulation
(3) Phonological encoding is the process in which children learn how to access and apply the thousands of words that are previously present in their spoken lexicon. It is very important because it is an absolutely necessary condition for an effective reading acquisition. In order phonological encoding to be successful, children need to find combined grain sizes in orthography and phonology of their language that permits a strong connection between the two fields. 2. Define the three problems the authors claim beginning readers face.
Phonological knowledge refers to knowledge about sound and symbol relations in a language. A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of a sound. This is combined with other phonemes to form words. A phoneme consist of sounds that are considered to be a single perceptual unit by a listener for example you would say B is for ball. Phonic instruction involves teaching the relationship between sounds and the letters used to represent them.
However, according to the results of this research oral vocabulary plays a more significant role than alphabetic knowledge when learning to read. An efficacy study of two school-based reading intervention program has found that the Oral language program resulted in improved vocabulary and grammatical skills while the Phonology + Reading (P+R) program resulted in improved decoding skills (Bowyer-Crane, et al., 2007). This study demonstrates the use of phonology and reading improves decoding skills, which is one of the main deficits in the phonological deficit theory. As such, phonology and reading program should also be incorporated when implementing an intervention to improve reading. More recent research has introduced a self-teaching model to develop phonological decoding in children with dyslexia.
Words are like codes and phonics teaches children how to crack the reading code. Phonics is therefore an important part of any reading development program. The history of phonics came back to a commercial program developed by UK primary/elementary teachers Sue Lloyd and Sara Wernham, and published by Jolly Learning Ltd. Phonics is a series of rules that children have to memorize and apply when they are sounding out new words. Children are taught a rule, i.e. Silent e, and then they
McNair (2007) explained phonics as it is instruction in letter-sound relationships. According to Villaume and Brabham (2003) many authors express the aim of phonics instruction as the ability of students to develop their knowledge of the alphabetic principle. Reeb (2011) mentioned the purpose of phonics instruction which is to be flexible and find learner’s needs to be able to get the importance of reading not to find one method or strategy that works for all students equally.
Even though all of the elements of interest must interact, it is possible to differentiate individual elements that compose a meaningful language. Troike states phonology as an element of a language used in the acquisition of a second language. Phonology is that element of a language that shows the different sounds of a speech thereby creating different meanings. It defines the possible sequences of vowels and consonants in what is referred to as a syllable structure. Further, phonology deals with intonation patterns that include
Phonics One of the urgent requirements in the field of Education in Learning Disability is introduction of language development and phonics as a mandatory part of pre- and primary school curriculum. Phonics is relationship between sound of our language and written symbols. An alphabetical principle is, acquiring the knowledge that letters of the alphabet represent sound and written words are formed by putting together these sounds. The instruction of phonics is like breaking the code of unknown words. Phonics instructions have to be systematic and explicit.
Studying the features of a language is important to discover the set of rules it relies on. 3.1. Phonology The following will highlight the most important phonological features of AAVE. Bailey and Thomas (cf. 1998, p. 85-86) state that phonology plays a huge part in ethnic identification and has a huge impact on discrimination.